Abstract

In the present study, low doses (0.5, 1, and 2 μM) of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP) or tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages under serum-free conditions. IC50 values of CoPP inhibition of NO and iNOS protein individually induced by LPS and LTA were around 0.25 and 1.7 μM, respectively. This suggests that CoPP is more sensitive at inhibiting NO production than iNOS protein in response to separate LPS and LTA stimulation. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by CoPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Decreasing iNOS/NO production and increasing HO-1 protein by CoPP were observed with CoPP pretreatment, CoPP co-treatment, and CoPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA stimulation. LPS- and LTA-induced NOS/NO productions were significantly suppressed by the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not by the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, through a reduction in JNK protein phosphorylation. Transfection of a dominant negative JNK plasmid inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production and JNK protein phosphorylation, suggesting that JNK activation is involved in LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production. Additionally, CoPP inhibition of LPS- and LTA-induced JNK, but not ERK, protein phosphorylation was identified in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, CoPP significantly reduced NO production in a cell-mediated, but not cell-free, iNOS enzyme activity assay accompanied by HO-1 induction. However, attenuation of HO-1 protein stimulated by CoPP via transfection of HO-1 siRNA did not affect NO's inhibition of CoPP against LPS stimulation. CoPP effectively suppressing LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production through blocking JNK activation and iNOS enzyme activity via a HO-1 independent manner is first demonstrated herein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202-210
Number of pages9
JournalChemico-Biological Interactions
Volume180
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 15 2009

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JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Enzyme activity
Lipopolysaccharides
Nitric Oxide
Chemical activation
Heme Oxygenase-1
Enzymes
Phosphorylation
Proteins
lipoteichoic acid
cobaltiprotoporphyrin
Transfection
Enzyme Activation
Macrophages
Enzyme Assays
Bovine Serum Albumin
Serum
Small Interfering RNA
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Assays

Keywords

  • CoPP
  • HO-1
  • iNOS
  • LPS
  • LTA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

@article{26bfff9d531c4985a7a3fa8b703b6426,
title = "Cobalt protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid-induced nitric oxide production via blocking c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and nitric oxide enzyme activity",
abstract = "In the present study, low doses (0.5, 1, and 2 μM) of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP) or tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages under serum-free conditions. IC50 values of CoPP inhibition of NO and iNOS protein individually induced by LPS and LTA were around 0.25 and 1.7 μM, respectively. This suggests that CoPP is more sensitive at inhibiting NO production than iNOS protein in response to separate LPS and LTA stimulation. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by CoPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Decreasing iNOS/NO production and increasing HO-1 protein by CoPP were observed with CoPP pretreatment, CoPP co-treatment, and CoPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA stimulation. LPS- and LTA-induced NOS/NO productions were significantly suppressed by the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not by the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, through a reduction in JNK protein phosphorylation. Transfection of a dominant negative JNK plasmid inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production and JNK protein phosphorylation, suggesting that JNK activation is involved in LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production. Additionally, CoPP inhibition of LPS- and LTA-induced JNK, but not ERK, protein phosphorylation was identified in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, CoPP significantly reduced NO production in a cell-mediated, but not cell-free, iNOS enzyme activity assay accompanied by HO-1 induction. However, attenuation of HO-1 protein stimulated by CoPP via transfection of HO-1 siRNA did not affect NO's inhibition of CoPP against LPS stimulation. CoPP effectively suppressing LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production through blocking JNK activation and iNOS enzyme activity via a HO-1 independent manner is first demonstrated herein.",
keywords = "CoPP, HO-1, iNOS, LPS, LTA",
author = "Lin, {Hui Yi} and Shing-Chuan Shen and Cheng-Wei Lin and Ming-Shun Wu and Yen-Chou Chen",
year = "2009",
month = "7",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.cbi.2009.01.004",
language = "English",
volume = "180",
pages = "202--210",
journal = "Chemico-Biological Interactions",
issn = "0009-2797",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Cobalt protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid-induced nitric oxide production via blocking c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and nitric oxide enzyme activity

AU - Lin, Hui Yi

AU - Shen, Shing-Chuan

AU - Lin, Cheng-Wei

AU - Wu, Ming-Shun

AU - Chen, Yen-Chou

PY - 2009/7/15

Y1 - 2009/7/15

N2 - In the present study, low doses (0.5, 1, and 2 μM) of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP) or tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages under serum-free conditions. IC50 values of CoPP inhibition of NO and iNOS protein individually induced by LPS and LTA were around 0.25 and 1.7 μM, respectively. This suggests that CoPP is more sensitive at inhibiting NO production than iNOS protein in response to separate LPS and LTA stimulation. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by CoPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Decreasing iNOS/NO production and increasing HO-1 protein by CoPP were observed with CoPP pretreatment, CoPP co-treatment, and CoPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA stimulation. LPS- and LTA-induced NOS/NO productions were significantly suppressed by the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not by the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, through a reduction in JNK protein phosphorylation. Transfection of a dominant negative JNK plasmid inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production and JNK protein phosphorylation, suggesting that JNK activation is involved in LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production. Additionally, CoPP inhibition of LPS- and LTA-induced JNK, but not ERK, protein phosphorylation was identified in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, CoPP significantly reduced NO production in a cell-mediated, but not cell-free, iNOS enzyme activity assay accompanied by HO-1 induction. However, attenuation of HO-1 protein stimulated by CoPP via transfection of HO-1 siRNA did not affect NO's inhibition of CoPP against LPS stimulation. CoPP effectively suppressing LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production through blocking JNK activation and iNOS enzyme activity via a HO-1 independent manner is first demonstrated herein.

AB - In the present study, low doses (0.5, 1, and 2 μM) of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP) or tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages under serum-free conditions. IC50 values of CoPP inhibition of NO and iNOS protein individually induced by LPS and LTA were around 0.25 and 1.7 μM, respectively. This suggests that CoPP is more sensitive at inhibiting NO production than iNOS protein in response to separate LPS and LTA stimulation. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by CoPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Decreasing iNOS/NO production and increasing HO-1 protein by CoPP were observed with CoPP pretreatment, CoPP co-treatment, and CoPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA stimulation. LPS- and LTA-induced NOS/NO productions were significantly suppressed by the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not by the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, through a reduction in JNK protein phosphorylation. Transfection of a dominant negative JNK plasmid inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production and JNK protein phosphorylation, suggesting that JNK activation is involved in LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production. Additionally, CoPP inhibition of LPS- and LTA-induced JNK, but not ERK, protein phosphorylation was identified in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, CoPP significantly reduced NO production in a cell-mediated, but not cell-free, iNOS enzyme activity assay accompanied by HO-1 induction. However, attenuation of HO-1 protein stimulated by CoPP via transfection of HO-1 siRNA did not affect NO's inhibition of CoPP against LPS stimulation. CoPP effectively suppressing LPS- and LTA-induced iNOS/NO production through blocking JNK activation and iNOS enzyme activity via a HO-1 independent manner is first demonstrated herein.

KW - CoPP

KW - HO-1

KW - iNOS

KW - LPS

KW - LTA

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U2 - 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.01.004

DO - 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.01.004

M3 - Article

VL - 180

SP - 202

EP - 210

JO - Chemico-Biological Interactions

JF - Chemico-Biological Interactions

SN - 0009-2797

IS - 2

ER -