Clinical manifestations and prognostic features of acute methamphetamine intoxication

Kuo Cheng Lan, Yuh Feng Lin, Fu Chiu Yu, Cluen Sheng Lin, Pauling Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The prevalence of amphetamine abuse and the frequency of emergency department visits for amphetamine intoxication have increased dramatically worldwide. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the relationship between the prognostic features and clinical manifestations among patients admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital for acute methamphetamine intoxication during a 6-year period. Data collected included gender, age, route of abuse, time between drug exposure and arrival at the emergency department, estimated dose, signs and symptoms, laboratory values, and complications. Emergency therapy and cooling procedures were also recorded. After excluding 26 patients with multiple-drug intoxication, 18 patients (male-to-female ratio, 11:7) were included in the analysis. The mean age was 25.6 years. Thirteen patients survived and five died. Patients who died often presented with coma (80% vs 0%, p = 0.002), shock (60% vs 8%, p = 0.044), convulsions (100% vs 23%, p = 0.007), oliguria (80% vs 0%, p = 0.002), and high body temperature (41.4 ± 0.5°C vs 39.4 ± 2.1°C, p = 0.005). Furthermore, patients who died had significantly higher concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (8.7 ± 2.1 vs 5.6 ± 2.0 mmol/L, p = 0.01) and serum creatinine (212 ± 71 vs 115 ± 27 μmol/ L, p = 0.033), and lower values of arterial pH (7.12 ± 0.12 vs 7.34 ± 0.10, p = 0.03), than those who survived. In the fatality group, the most common complication was rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure (5 of 5); multiple organ failure resembling that from heatstroke was the leading cause of death from acute methamphetamine intoxication. In conclusion, the adverse prognostic features in patients with acute methamphetamine intoxication include coma, shock, convulsion, oliguria, and high core temperature. Acidosis, volume depletion, and ischemic renal damage were potential risk factors for development of acute renal failure in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-533
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
Volume97
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1998
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Methamphetamine intoxication
  • Prognostic features

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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