Clinical and molecular characteristics of neonatal extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteremia: A 12-year case-control-control study of a referral center in Taiwan

Ming Horng Tsai, I-Ta Lee, Shih Ming Chu, Reyin Lien, Hsuan Rong Huang, Ming Chou Chiang, Ren Huei Fu, Jen Fu Hsu, Yhu Chering Huang

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Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62.3%), E. coli (20.8%) and Enterobacter spp. (16.9%). Most ESBL-GNB strains were genetically unrelated and the SHV-type ESBLs were the most prevalent (67% of isolates). Comparison with both control groups disclosed previous usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03-10.97; P < 0.001), and underlying renal disease (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.10-15.08; P = 0.035) as independent risk factors for ESBL-GNB. Inadequate empiric antibiotics, a higher illness severity, higher rates of infectious complications and sepsis-attributable mortality were more frequently seen in neonates with ESBL-GNB than those with non-ESBL GNB (20.8% and 15.6% vs. 9.2% and 7.9%, respectively; P = 0.008 and 0.049, respectively). Neonates with underlying secondary hypertension (OR, 7.22; 95% CI, 2.17-24.06) and infectious complications after bacteremia (OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.81-19.31) were identified as independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. ESBL-GNB accounted for one-seventh of all neonatal gram-negative bacteremia, especially in neonates exposed to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Neonates with ESBL-GNB bacteremia more frequently received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, which were associated with a higher rate of infectious complications and an adverse outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0159744
JournalPLoS One
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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