Five types of crop residue (rice, wheat, corn, sorghum, and sugarcane) collected from different provinces in China were used to characterize the chemical components and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions during open-burning scenarios. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were the most abundant components, contributing 41.7%-54.9% of PM2.5 emissions. The OC/EC ratio ranged from 8.8 to 31.2, indicating that organic matter was the dominant component of emissions. Potassium and chloride were the most abundant components in the portion of PM2.5 composed of water-soluble ions. The coefficient of divergence ranged from 0.27 to 0.51 among various emissions profiles. All samples exposed to a high PM2.5 concentration (150 μg/mL) exhibited a significant reduction in cell viability (A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells) and increase in lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and interleukin 6 levels compared with those exposed to 20 or 0 μg/mL. Higher bioreactivity (determined according to LDH and interleukin 6 level) was observed for the rice, wheat, and corn samples than for the sorghum straw samples. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that OC, heavy metals (chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, tin, and barium), and water-soluble ions (fluoride, calcium, and sulfate) are the components potentially associated with LDH production.