Carnosine ameliorates lens protein turbidity formations by inhibiting calpain proteolysis and ultraviolet C-induced degradation

Jiahn Haur Liao, I. Lin Lin, Kai Fa Huang, Pei Ting Kuo, Shih Hsiung Wu, Tzu Hua Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carnosine (CAR) is an endogenous peptide and present in lens, but there is little evidence for its effectiveness in calpain-induced proteolysis inhibition and its differential effects toward different wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This study aimed to develop three in vitro cataract models to compare the mechanisms underlying the protective activities of CAR. Crude crystallins extracted from porcine lenses were used for antiproteolysis assays, and purified γ-crystallins were used for anti-UV assays. The turbidity in those in vitro models mimics cataract formation and was assayed by measuring optical density (OD) at 405 nm. The effectiveness of CAR on calpain-induced proteolysis was studied at 37 and 58°C. Patterns of proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The turbidity was reduced significantly (p <0.05) at 60 min measurements with the increased concentration of CAR (10-300 mM). SDS-PAGE showed that the decreased intensities at both ∼28 and ∼30 kDa protein bands in heat-enhanced assays were ameliorated by CAR at ≥10 mM concentrations. In UV-B studies, CAR (200, 300 mM) reduced the turbidity of γ-crystallin significantly (p <0.05) at 6 h observations. The turbidity of samples containing γ-crystallins was ameliorated while incubated with CAR (100, 300 mM) significantly (p <0.05) following 4 h of exposure to UV-C. SDS-PAGE showed that the presence of CAR reduced UV-B-induced aggregation of γ-crystallins at ∼44 kDa and resulted in less loss of γ-crystallin following UV-C exposure. The result of modeling also suggests that CAR acts as an inhibitor of calpain. In conclusion, CAR protects lens proteins more readily by inhibiting proteolysis and UV-C-induced degradation than aggregation induced by UV-B irradiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5932-5938
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume62
Issue number25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 25 2014

Fingerprint

Carnosine
Proteolysis
carnosine
Crystallins
calpain
Calpain
Turbidity
Lens
proteolysis
turbidity
ultraviolet radiation
crystallins
Degradation
degradation
proteins
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Assays
cataract
Cataract
Lenses

Keywords

  • calpain proteolysis
  • carnosine
  • lens turbidity
  • molecular modeling
  • UV insults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Carnosine ameliorates lens protein turbidity formations by inhibiting calpain proteolysis and ultraviolet C-induced degradation. / Liao, Jiahn Haur; Lin, I. Lin; Huang, Kai Fa; Kuo, Pei Ting; Wu, Shih Hsiung; Wu, Tzu Hua.

In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 62, No. 25, 25.06.2014, p. 5932-5938.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liao, Jiahn Haur ; Lin, I. Lin ; Huang, Kai Fa ; Kuo, Pei Ting ; Wu, Shih Hsiung ; Wu, Tzu Hua. / Carnosine ameliorates lens protein turbidity formations by inhibiting calpain proteolysis and ultraviolet C-induced degradation. In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2014 ; Vol. 62, No. 25. pp. 5932-5938.
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abstract = "Carnosine (CAR) is an endogenous peptide and present in lens, but there is little evidence for its effectiveness in calpain-induced proteolysis inhibition and its differential effects toward different wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This study aimed to develop three in vitro cataract models to compare the mechanisms underlying the protective activities of CAR. Crude crystallins extracted from porcine lenses were used for antiproteolysis assays, and purified γ-crystallins were used for anti-UV assays. The turbidity in those in vitro models mimics cataract formation and was assayed by measuring optical density (OD) at 405 nm. The effectiveness of CAR on calpain-induced proteolysis was studied at 37 and 58°C. Patterns of proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The turbidity was reduced significantly (p <0.05) at 60 min measurements with the increased concentration of CAR (10-300 mM). SDS-PAGE showed that the decreased intensities at both ∼28 and ∼30 kDa protein bands in heat-enhanced assays were ameliorated by CAR at ≥10 mM concentrations. In UV-B studies, CAR (200, 300 mM) reduced the turbidity of γ-crystallin significantly (p <0.05) at 6 h observations. The turbidity of samples containing γ-crystallins was ameliorated while incubated with CAR (100, 300 mM) significantly (p <0.05) following 4 h of exposure to UV-C. SDS-PAGE showed that the presence of CAR reduced UV-B-induced aggregation of γ-crystallins at ∼44 kDa and resulted in less loss of γ-crystallin following UV-C exposure. The result of modeling also suggests that CAR acts as an inhibitor of calpain. In conclusion, CAR protects lens proteins more readily by inhibiting proteolysis and UV-C-induced degradation than aggregation induced by UV-B irradiation.",
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AU - Liao, Jiahn Haur

AU - Lin, I. Lin

AU - Huang, Kai Fa

AU - Kuo, Pei Ting

AU - Wu, Shih Hsiung

AU - Wu, Tzu Hua

PY - 2014/6/25

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N2 - Carnosine (CAR) is an endogenous peptide and present in lens, but there is little evidence for its effectiveness in calpain-induced proteolysis inhibition and its differential effects toward different wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This study aimed to develop three in vitro cataract models to compare the mechanisms underlying the protective activities of CAR. Crude crystallins extracted from porcine lenses were used for antiproteolysis assays, and purified γ-crystallins were used for anti-UV assays. The turbidity in those in vitro models mimics cataract formation and was assayed by measuring optical density (OD) at 405 nm. The effectiveness of CAR on calpain-induced proteolysis was studied at 37 and 58°C. Patterns of proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The turbidity was reduced significantly (p <0.05) at 60 min measurements with the increased concentration of CAR (10-300 mM). SDS-PAGE showed that the decreased intensities at both ∼28 and ∼30 kDa protein bands in heat-enhanced assays were ameliorated by CAR at ≥10 mM concentrations. In UV-B studies, CAR (200, 300 mM) reduced the turbidity of γ-crystallin significantly (p <0.05) at 6 h observations. The turbidity of samples containing γ-crystallins was ameliorated while incubated with CAR (100, 300 mM) significantly (p <0.05) following 4 h of exposure to UV-C. SDS-PAGE showed that the presence of CAR reduced UV-B-induced aggregation of γ-crystallins at ∼44 kDa and resulted in less loss of γ-crystallin following UV-C exposure. The result of modeling also suggests that CAR acts as an inhibitor of calpain. In conclusion, CAR protects lens proteins more readily by inhibiting proteolysis and UV-C-induced degradation than aggregation induced by UV-B irradiation.

AB - Carnosine (CAR) is an endogenous peptide and present in lens, but there is little evidence for its effectiveness in calpain-induced proteolysis inhibition and its differential effects toward different wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This study aimed to develop three in vitro cataract models to compare the mechanisms underlying the protective activities of CAR. Crude crystallins extracted from porcine lenses were used for antiproteolysis assays, and purified γ-crystallins were used for anti-UV assays. The turbidity in those in vitro models mimics cataract formation and was assayed by measuring optical density (OD) at 405 nm. The effectiveness of CAR on calpain-induced proteolysis was studied at 37 and 58°C. Patterns of proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The turbidity was reduced significantly (p <0.05) at 60 min measurements with the increased concentration of CAR (10-300 mM). SDS-PAGE showed that the decreased intensities at both ∼28 and ∼30 kDa protein bands in heat-enhanced assays were ameliorated by CAR at ≥10 mM concentrations. In UV-B studies, CAR (200, 300 mM) reduced the turbidity of γ-crystallin significantly (p <0.05) at 6 h observations. The turbidity of samples containing γ-crystallins was ameliorated while incubated with CAR (100, 300 mM) significantly (p <0.05) following 4 h of exposure to UV-C. SDS-PAGE showed that the presence of CAR reduced UV-B-induced aggregation of γ-crystallins at ∼44 kDa and resulted in less loss of γ-crystallin following UV-C exposure. The result of modeling also suggests that CAR acts as an inhibitor of calpain. In conclusion, CAR protects lens proteins more readily by inhibiting proteolysis and UV-C-induced degradation than aggregation induced by UV-B irradiation.

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