Cardamonin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Alters Apoptosis Associated Gene Expression in WEHI-3 Mouse Leukemia Cells

Nien-Chieh Liao, Yung-Luen Shih, Jiann-Shang Chou, Kuo-Wei Chen, Yung-Liang Chen, Mei-Hui Lee, Shu-Fen Peng, Sy-Jye Leu, Jing-Gung Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cardamonin, the chalcone class, is one of the natural components from the spicy herbaceous plant (Alpinia conchigera Griff) and has anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines. There is, however, no information to show that cardamonin induces cell apoptosis and alters apoptosis associated gene expressions in mouse leukemia cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of cardamonin on the apoptotic cell death and associated gene expression in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro. Results indicated that cardamonin decreased total viable cell number via induced cell morphological changes and apoptotic cell death in WEHI-3 cells that were assay by contrast-phase microscopy and flow cytometry examinations, respectively. The flow cytometry assay indicated that cardamonin increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2 + production, decreased the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential ( Δ Ψ m ) and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities in WEHI-3 cells. Western blotting was performed to analyze expression of relevant pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and results showed that cardamonin decreased anti-apoptotic protein of Bcl-2 but increased pro-apoptotic protein of Bax in WEHI-3 cells. Furthermore, cardamonin increased cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G release, increased GRP78, caspase-12 that were associated with ER stress and increased Fas, Fas-Ligand and FADD expression. Furthermore, cardamonin increased the gene expressions of DAP (death-associated protein), TMBIM4 transmembrane (BAX inhibitor motif containing 4), ATG5 (autophagy related 5) but decreased the gene expression of DDIT3 (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3), DDIT4 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4), BAG6 (BCL2-associated athanogene 6), BCL2L13 [BCL2-like 13 (apoptosis facilitator)] and BRAT1 (BRCA1-associated ATM activator 1) that are associated with apoptosis pathways. Based on those findings, we may suggest cardamonin induced apoptotic cell death through Fas and Fas-Ligand-, caspase- and mitochondria-dependently pathways and also affects the apoptotic gene expression in WEHI-3 cells in vitro.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalThe American journal of Chinese medicine
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Apr 25 2019

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Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Leukemia
Apoptosis
Gene Expression
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
Fas Ligand Protein
Cell Death
DNA Damage
Flow Cytometry
Alpinia
Caspase 12
Chalcone
cardamonin
Phase-Contrast Microscopy
Caspase 8
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
Autophagy
Caspases
Cytochromes c
Caspase 3

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Cardamonin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Alters Apoptosis Associated Gene Expression in WEHI-3 Mouse Leukemia Cells. / Liao, Nien-Chieh; Shih, Yung-Luen; Chou, Jiann-Shang; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Yung-Liang; Lee, Mei-Hui; Peng, Shu-Fen; Leu, Sy-Jye; Chung, Jing-Gung.

In: The American journal of Chinese medicine, 25.04.2019, p. 1-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liao, Nien-Chieh ; Shih, Yung-Luen ; Chou, Jiann-Shang ; Chen, Kuo-Wei ; Chen, Yung-Liang ; Lee, Mei-Hui ; Peng, Shu-Fen ; Leu, Sy-Jye ; Chung, Jing-Gung. / Cardamonin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Alters Apoptosis Associated Gene Expression in WEHI-3 Mouse Leukemia Cells. In: The American journal of Chinese medicine. 2019 ; pp. 1-22.
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author = "Nien-Chieh Liao and Yung-Luen Shih and Jiann-Shang Chou and Kuo-Wei Chen and Yung-Liang Chen and Mei-Hui Lee and Shu-Fen Peng and Sy-Jye Leu and Jing-Gung Chung",
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AU - Liao, Nien-Chieh

AU - Shih, Yung-Luen

AU - Chou, Jiann-Shang

AU - Chen, Kuo-Wei

AU - Chen, Yung-Liang

AU - Lee, Mei-Hui

AU - Peng, Shu-Fen

AU - Leu, Sy-Jye

AU - Chung, Jing-Gung

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AB - Cardamonin, the chalcone class, is one of the natural components from the spicy herbaceous plant (Alpinia conchigera Griff) and has anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines. There is, however, no information to show that cardamonin induces cell apoptosis and alters apoptosis associated gene expressions in mouse leukemia cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of cardamonin on the apoptotic cell death and associated gene expression in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro. Results indicated that cardamonin decreased total viable cell number via induced cell morphological changes and apoptotic cell death in WEHI-3 cells that were assay by contrast-phase microscopy and flow cytometry examinations, respectively. The flow cytometry assay indicated that cardamonin increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2 + production, decreased the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential ( Δ Ψ m ) and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities in WEHI-3 cells. Western blotting was performed to analyze expression of relevant pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and results showed that cardamonin decreased anti-apoptotic protein of Bcl-2 but increased pro-apoptotic protein of Bax in WEHI-3 cells. Furthermore, cardamonin increased cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G release, increased GRP78, caspase-12 that were associated with ER stress and increased Fas, Fas-Ligand and FADD expression. Furthermore, cardamonin increased the gene expressions of DAP (death-associated protein), TMBIM4 transmembrane (BAX inhibitor motif containing 4), ATG5 (autophagy related 5) but decreased the gene expression of DDIT3 (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3), DDIT4 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4), BAG6 (BCL2-associated athanogene 6), BCL2L13 [BCL2-like 13 (apoptosis facilitator)] and BRAT1 (BRCA1-associated ATM activator 1) that are associated with apoptosis pathways. Based on those findings, we may suggest cardamonin induced apoptotic cell death through Fas and Fas-Ligand-, caspase- and mitochondria-dependently pathways and also affects the apoptotic gene expression in WEHI-3 cells in vitro.

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