Brain imaging of the self - Conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues

Georg Northoff, Pengmin Qin, Todd E. Feinberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 72 Citations

Abstract

In this paper we consider two major issues: conceptual-experimental approaches to the self, and the neuroanatomical substrate of the self. We distinguish content- and processed-based concepts of the self that entail different experimental strategies, and anatomically, we investigate the concept of midline structures in further detail and present a novel view on the anatomy of an integrated subcortical-cortical midline system. Presenting meta-analytic evidence, we show that the anterior paralimbic, e.g. midline, regions do indeed seem to be specific for self-specific stimuli. We conclude that future investigation of the self need to develop novel concepts that are more empirically plausible than those currently in use. Different concepts of self will require novel experimental designs that include, for example, the brain's resting state activity as an independent variable. Modifications of both conceptual and anatomical dimensions will allow an empirically more plausible account of the relationship between brain and self. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
LanguageEnglish
Pages52-63
Number of pages12
JournalConsciousness and Cognition
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Self Concept
Neuroimaging
Brain
Anatomy
Research Design

Keywords

  • Brain image
  • Cortical midline structures
  • The self
  • article
  • brain cortex
  • brain function
  • electroencephalogram
  • experimental design
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • human
  • limbic cortex
  • methodology
  • neuroanatomy
  • neuroimaging
  • positron emission tomography
  • self concept
  • stimulus response
  • Brain
  • Brain Mapping
  • Ego
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Positron-Emission Tomography

Cite this

Brain imaging of the self - Conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues. / Northoff, Georg; Qin, Pengmin; Feinberg, Todd E.

In: Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2011, p. 52-63.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c87fca585c134372860681c2fa230b6b,
title = "Brain imaging of the self - Conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues",
abstract = "In this paper we consider two major issues: conceptual-experimental approaches to the self, and the neuroanatomical substrate of the self. We distinguish content- and processed-based concepts of the self that entail different experimental strategies, and anatomically, we investigate the concept of midline structures in further detail and present a novel view on the anatomy of an integrated subcortical-cortical midline system. Presenting meta-analytic evidence, we show that the anterior paralimbic, e.g. midline, regions do indeed seem to be specific for self-specific stimuli. We conclude that future investigation of the self need to develop novel concepts that are more empirically plausible than those currently in use. Different concepts of self will require novel experimental designs that include, for example, the brain's resting state activity as an independent variable. Modifications of both conceptual and anatomical dimensions will allow an empirically more plausible account of the relationship between brain and self. {\circledC} 2010 Elsevier Inc.",
keywords = "Brain image, Cortical midline structures, The self, article, brain cortex, brain function, electroencephalogram, experimental design, functional magnetic resonance imaging, human, limbic cortex, methodology, neuroanatomy, neuroimaging, positron emission tomography, self concept, stimulus response, Brain, Brain Mapping, Ego, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron-Emission Tomography",
author = "Georg Northoff and Pengmin Qin and Feinberg, {Todd E.}",
note = "被引用次數:50 Export Date: 31 March 2016 CODEN: COCOF 通訊地址: Northoff, G.; Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research (IMHR), 1145 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1Z 7K4, Canada; 電子郵件: georg.northoff@rohcg.on.ca 參考文獻: Alcaro, A., Panksepp, J., Witczak, J., Hayes, D.J., Northoff, G., Is subcortical-cortical midline activity in depression mediated by glutamate and GABA? A cross-species translational approach (2010) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34 (4), pp. 592-605; Boly, M., Phillips, C., Tshibanda, L., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Schabus, M., Dang-Vu, T.T., Intrinsic brain activity in altered states of consciousness: How conscious is the default mode of brain function? (2008) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1129, pp. 119-129; Buckner, R.L., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., Schacter, D.L., The brain's default network: Anatomy, function, and relevance to disease (2008) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, pp. 1-38; Christoff, K., Ream, J.M., Geddes, L.P.T., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Evaluating self-generated information: Anterior prefrontal contributions to human cognition (2003) Behavioral Neuroscience, 117 (6), pp. 1161-1168; Churchland, P.S., Self-representation in nervous systems (2002) Science, 296 (5566), pp. 308-310; Craig, A.D., How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body (2002) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3 (8), pp. 655-666; Craig, A.D., Human feelings: Why are some more aware than others? (2004) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8 (6), pp. 239-241; Craig, A.D., How do you feel-now? The anterior insula and human awareness (2009) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10 (1), pp. 59-70; Dalgleish, T., The emotional brain (2004) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5 (7), pp. 583-589; Damasio, A., (1999) The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness, , Harcourt Brace; Damasio, A., Feelings of emotion and the self (2003) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1001, pp. 253-261; Damasio, A., Mental self: The person within (2003) Nature, 423 (6937), p. 227; D'Argembeau, A., Collette, F., Van der Linden, M., Laureys, S., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., Self-referential reflective activity and its relationship with rest: A PET study (2005) Neuroimage, 25 (2), pp. 616-624; David, N., Cohen, M.X., Newen, A., Bewernick, B.H., Shah, N.J., Fink, G.R., The extrastriate cortex distinguishes between the consequences of one's own and others' behavior (2007) Neuroimage, 36 (3), pp. 1004-1014; de Olmos, J.S., Heimer, L., The concepts of the ventral striatopallidal system and extended amygdala (1999) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, pp. 1-32; Feinberg, T.E., The nested hierarchy of consciousness: A neurobiological solution to the problem of mental unity (2000) Neurocase, 6, pp. 75-81; Feinberg, T.E., (2001) Altered egos: How the brain creates the self?, , Oxford University Press, New York; Feinberg, T.E., Why the mind is not a radically emergent feature of the brain? (2001) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, pp. 123-145; Feinberg, T.E., (2009) From axons to identity: Neurological explorations of the nature of the self, , W.W. Norton & Company, (August 3, 2009); Gallagher, I.I., Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science (2000) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (1), pp. 14-21; Gallagher, H.L., Frith, C.D., Functional imaging of 'theory of mind' (2003) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (2), pp. 77-83; Gillihan, S.J., Farah, M.J., Is self special? A critical review of evidence from experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience (2005) Psychological Bulletin, 131 (1), pp. 76-97; Golland, Y., Bentin, S., Gelbard, H., Benjamini, Y., Heller, R., Nir, Y., Extrinsic and intrinsic systems in the posterior cortex of the human brain revealed during natural sensory stimulation (2007) Cerebral Cortex, 17 (4), pp. 766-777; Grimm, S., Boesiger, P., Beck, J., Schuepbach, D., Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects (2009) Neuropsychopharmacology, 34 (4), pp. 932-943; Grimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Hell, D., Boeker, H., Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30 (8), pp. 2617-2627; Gusnard, D.A., Akbudak, E., Shulman, G.L., Raichle, M.E., Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 98 (7), pp. 4259-4264; Heimer, L., A new anatomical framework for neuropsychiatric disorders and drug abuse (2003) American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (10), pp. 1726-1739; Keenan, J.P., Wheeler, M., Platek, S.M., Lardi, G., Lassonde, M., Self-face processing in a callosotomy patient (2003) European Journal of Neuroscience, 18 (8), pp. 2391-2395; Kelley, W.M., Macrae, C.N., Wyland, C.L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., Heatherton, T.F., Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study (2002) Journal of Cognitive Science, 14 (5), pp. 785-794; Kircher, T., David, A.S., (2003) The self and the schizophrenia, , Oxford University Press; Kober, H., Barrett, L.F., Joseph, J., Bliss-Moreau, E., Lindquist, K., Wager, T.D., Functional grouping and cortical-subcortical interactions in emotion: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies (2008) Neuroimage, 42 (2), pp. 998-1031; Lambie, J.A., Marcel, A.J., Consciousness and the varieties of emotion experience: A theoretical framework (2002) Psychological Review, 109 (2), pp. 219-259; LeDoux, J., (2002) Synaptic self: How our brain become who we are?, , Viking, New York; Legrand, D., How the body shapes the mind? (2005) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (9), pp. 413-414; Legrand, D., Ruby, P., What is self-specific? Theoretical investigation and critical review of neuroimaging results (2009) Psychological Review, 116 (1), pp. 252-282; Logothetis, N.K., Murayama, Y., Augath, M., Steffen, T., Werner, J., Oeltermann, A., How not to study spontaneous activity? (2009) Neuroimage, 45 (4), pp. 1080-1089; Marcel, A.J., Lambie, J.A., How many selves in emotion experience? Reply to Dalgleish and Power (2004) (2004) Psychological Review, 111 (3), pp. 820-826; Metzinger, T., Gallese, V., The emergence of a shared action ontology: Building blocks for a theory (2003) Consciousness and Cognition, 12 (4), pp. 549-571; Mitchell, J.P., Banaji, M.R., Macrae, C.N., The link between social cognition and self-referential thought in the medial prefrontal cortex (2005) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17 (8), pp. 1306-1315; Morgane, P.J., Galler, J.R., Mokler, D.J., A review of systems and networks of the limbic forebrain/limbic midbrain (2005) Progress in Neurobiology, 75 (2), pp. 143-160; Morgane, P.J., Mokler, D.J., The limbic brain: Continuing resolution (2006) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30 (2), pp. 119-125; Muthukumaraswamy, S.D., Singh, K.D., Functional decoupling of BOLD and gamma-band amplitudes in human primary visual cortex (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30 (7), pp. 2000-2007; Nieuwenhuys, R., The greater limbic system, the emotional motor system and the brain (1996) Progress in Brain Research, 107, pp. 551-580; Nieuwenhuys, R., Veening, J.G., van Domburg, P., (1988), 26 (2-3), pp. 131-163. , Core and paracores; some new chemoarchitectural entities in the mammalian neuraxis. Acta Morphologica Neerlando-ScandinavicaNieuwenhuys, R., Voogd, J., Van Huijzen, C., (2007) The human central nervous system: A synopsis and Atlas, , Springer, Berlin Heidelberg; Northoff, G., (2004) Philosophy of the brain. The brain problem, , John Benjamins Publisher, Amsterdam, New York; Northoff, G., Psychopathology and pathophysiology of the self in depression - Neuropsychiatric hypothesis (2007) Journal of Affective Disorders, 104 (1-3), pp. 1-14; Northoff, G., Bermpohl, F., Cortical midline structures and the self (2004) Trends in Cognitive Science, 8 (3), pp. 102-107; Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., Panksepp, J., Self-referential processing in our brain - A meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self (2006) Neuroimage, 31 (1), pp. 440-457; Northoff, G., Panksepp, J., The trans-species concept of self and the subcortical-cortical midline system (2008) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12 (7), pp. 259-264; Northoff, G., Qin, P., Nakao, T., Rest-stimulus interaction in the brain: A review (2010) Trends in Neurosciences, 33 (6), pp. 277-284; Northoff, G., Schneider, F., Rotte, M., Matthiae, C., Tempelmann, C., Wiebking, C., Differential parametric modulation of self-relatedness and emotions in different brain regions (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30 (2), pp. 369-382; Northoff, G., Walter, M., Schulte, R.F., Beck, J., Dydak, U., Henning, A., GABA concentrations in the human anterior cingulate cortex predict negative BOLD responses in fMRI (2007) Nature Neuroscience, 10 (12), pp. 1515-1517; Panksepp, J., (1998) Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions, , Oxford University Press; Panksepp, J., The preiconscious substrates of consciousness: Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the SELF (1998) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5, pp. 566-582; Panksepp, J., At the interface of the affective, behavioral, and cognitive neurosciences: Decoding the emotional feelings of the brain (2003) Brain and Cognition, 52 (1), pp. 4-14; Panksepp, J., The neuroevolutionary and neuroaffective psychobiology of the prosocial brain (2007) The Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology, pp. 145-162. , Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, R.I.M. Dunbar, L. Barrett (Eds.); Panksepp, J., Northoff, G., The trans-species core SELF: The emergence of active cultural and neuro-ecological agents through self-related processing within subcortical-cortical midline networks (2009) Consciousness and Cognition, 18 (1), pp. 193-215; Phan, K.L., Wager, T., Taylor, S.F., Liberzon, I., Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: A meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI (2002) Neuroimage, 16 (2), pp. 331-348; Platek, S.M., Loughead, J.W., Gur, R.C., Busch, S., Ruparel, K., Phend, N., Neural substrates for functionally discriminating self-face from personally familiar faces (2006) Human Brain Mapping, 27 (2), pp. 91-98; Qin, P., Di, H., Liu, Y., Yu, S., Gong, Q., Duncan, N., (2010), et al. Anterior cingulate activity and the self in disorders of consciousness. Human Brain Mapping, in pressRaichle, M.E., Two views of brain function (2010) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14 (4), pp. 180-190; Raichle, M.E., MacLeod, A.M., Snyder, A.Z., Powers, W.J., Gusnard, D.A., Shulman, G.L., A default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 98 (2), pp. 676-682; Schneider, F., Bermpohl, F., Heinzel, A., Rotte, M., Walter, M., Tempelmann, C., The resting brain and our self: Self-relatedness modulates resting state neural activity in cortical midline structures (2008) Neuroscience, 157 (1), pp. 120-131; Seger, C.A., Stone, M., Keenan, J.P., Cortical activations during judgments about the self and an other person (2004) Neuropsychologia, 42 (9), pp. 1168-1177; Stuss, D.T., Gallup, G.G., Alexander, M.P., The frontal lobes are necessary for 'theory of mind' (2001) Brain, 124 (PART 2), pp. 279-286; Sugiura, M., Sassa, Y., Watanabe, J., Akitsuki, Y., Maeda, Y., Matsue, Y., Anatomical segregation of representations of personally familiar and famous people in the temporal and parietal cortices (2008) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21 (10), pp. 1855-1868; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Kelley, W.M., Funnell, M.G., Gazzaniga, M.S., Macrae, C.N., Mike or me? Self-recognition in a split-brain patient (2002) Nature Neuroscience, 5 (9), pp. 841-842; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Macrae, C.N., Kelley, W.M., Gazzaniga, M.S., Out of contact, out of mind: The distributed nature of the self (2003) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1001, pp. 65-78; Uddin, L.Q., Iacoboni, M., Lange, C., Keenan, J.P., The self and social cognition: The role of cortical midline structures and mirror neurons (2007) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 (4), pp. 153-157; Vanderwal, T., Hunyadi, E., Grupe, D.W., Connors, C.M., Schultz, R.T., Self, mother and abstract other: An fMRI study of reflective social processing (2008) Neuroimage, 41 (4), pp. 1437-1446; Vogeley, K., Fink, G.R., Neural correlates of the first-person-perspective (2003) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (1), pp. 38-42; Wager, T.D., Lindquist, M.A., Nichols, T.E., Kober, H., Van Snellenberg, J.X., Evaluating the consistency and specificity of neuroimaging data using meta-analysis (2009) Neuroimage, 45 (SUPPL. 1), pp. S210-S221; Walter, M., Henning, A., Grimm, S., Schulte, R.F., Beck, J., Dydak, U., The relationship between aberrant neuronal activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate, altered glutamatergic metabolism, and anhedonia in major depression (2009) Archives of General Psychiatry, 66 (5), pp. 478-486; Wicker, B., Ruby, P., Royet, J.P., Fonlupt, P., A relation between rest and the self in the brain? (2003) Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, 43 (2), pp. 224-230; Yaoi, K., Osaka, N., Osaka, M., Is the self special in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex? An fMRI study (2009) Social Neuroscience, 1, p. 9; Zahavi, D., (2005) Subjectivity and selfhood: Investigating the First-person perspective, , The MIT Press, London; Zhu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, J., Han, S., Neural basis of cultural influence on self-representation (2007) Neuroimage, 34 (3), pp. 1310-1316",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.011",
language = "English",
volume = "20",
pages = "52--63",
journal = "Consciousness and Cognition",
issn = "1053-8100",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brain imaging of the self - Conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues

AU - Northoff,Georg

AU - Qin,Pengmin

AU - Feinberg,Todd E.

N1 - 被引用次數:50 Export Date: 31 March 2016 CODEN: COCOF 通訊地址: Northoff, G.; Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research (IMHR), 1145 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1Z 7K4, Canada; 電子郵件: georg.northoff@rohcg.on.ca 參考文獻: Alcaro, A., Panksepp, J., Witczak, J., Hayes, D.J., Northoff, G., Is subcortical-cortical midline activity in depression mediated by glutamate and GABA? A cross-species translational approach (2010) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34 (4), pp. 592-605; Boly, M., Phillips, C., Tshibanda, L., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Schabus, M., Dang-Vu, T.T., Intrinsic brain activity in altered states of consciousness: How conscious is the default mode of brain function? (2008) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1129, pp. 119-129; Buckner, R.L., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., Schacter, D.L., The brain's default network: Anatomy, function, and relevance to disease (2008) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, pp. 1-38; Christoff, K., Ream, J.M., Geddes, L.P.T., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Evaluating self-generated information: Anterior prefrontal contributions to human cognition (2003) Behavioral Neuroscience, 117 (6), pp. 1161-1168; Churchland, P.S., Self-representation in nervous systems (2002) Science, 296 (5566), pp. 308-310; Craig, A.D., How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body (2002) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3 (8), pp. 655-666; Craig, A.D., Human feelings: Why are some more aware than others? (2004) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8 (6), pp. 239-241; Craig, A.D., How do you feel-now? The anterior insula and human awareness (2009) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10 (1), pp. 59-70; Dalgleish, T., The emotional brain (2004) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5 (7), pp. 583-589; Damasio, A., (1999) The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness, , Harcourt Brace; Damasio, A., Feelings of emotion and the self (2003) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1001, pp. 253-261; Damasio, A., Mental self: The person within (2003) Nature, 423 (6937), p. 227; D'Argembeau, A., Collette, F., Van der Linden, M., Laureys, S., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., Self-referential reflective activity and its relationship with rest: A PET study (2005) Neuroimage, 25 (2), pp. 616-624; David, N., Cohen, M.X., Newen, A., Bewernick, B.H., Shah, N.J., Fink, G.R., The extrastriate cortex distinguishes between the consequences of one's own and others' behavior (2007) Neuroimage, 36 (3), pp. 1004-1014; de Olmos, J.S., Heimer, L., The concepts of the ventral striatopallidal system and extended amygdala (1999) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, pp. 1-32; Feinberg, T.E., The nested hierarchy of consciousness: A neurobiological solution to the problem of mental unity (2000) Neurocase, 6, pp. 75-81; Feinberg, T.E., (2001) Altered egos: How the brain creates the self?, , Oxford University Press, New York; Feinberg, T.E., Why the mind is not a radically emergent feature of the brain? (2001) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, pp. 123-145; Feinberg, T.E., (2009) From axons to identity: Neurological explorations of the nature of the self, , W.W. Norton & Company, (August 3, 2009); Gallagher, I.I., Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science (2000) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (1), pp. 14-21; Gallagher, H.L., Frith, C.D., Functional imaging of 'theory of mind' (2003) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (2), pp. 77-83; Gillihan, S.J., Farah, M.J., Is self special? A critical review of evidence from experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience (2005) Psychological Bulletin, 131 (1), pp. 76-97; Golland, Y., Bentin, S., Gelbard, H., Benjamini, Y., Heller, R., Nir, Y., Extrinsic and intrinsic systems in the posterior cortex of the human brain revealed during natural sensory stimulation (2007) Cerebral Cortex, 17 (4), pp. 766-777; Grimm, S., Boesiger, P., Beck, J., Schuepbach, D., Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects (2009) Neuropsychopharmacology, 34 (4), pp. 932-943; Grimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Hell, D., Boeker, H., Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30 (8), pp. 2617-2627; Gusnard, D.A., Akbudak, E., Shulman, G.L., Raichle, M.E., Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 98 (7), pp. 4259-4264; Heimer, L., A new anatomical framework for neuropsychiatric disorders and drug abuse (2003) American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (10), pp. 1726-1739; Keenan, J.P., Wheeler, M., Platek, S.M., Lardi, G., Lassonde, M., Self-face processing in a callosotomy patient (2003) European Journal of Neuroscience, 18 (8), pp. 2391-2395; Kelley, W.M., Macrae, C.N., Wyland, C.L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., Heatherton, T.F., Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study (2002) Journal of Cognitive Science, 14 (5), pp. 785-794; Kircher, T., David, A.S., (2003) The self and the schizophrenia, , Oxford University Press; Kober, H., Barrett, L.F., Joseph, J., Bliss-Moreau, E., Lindquist, K., Wager, T.D., Functional grouping and cortical-subcortical interactions in emotion: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies (2008) Neuroimage, 42 (2), pp. 998-1031; Lambie, J.A., Marcel, A.J., Consciousness and the varieties of emotion experience: A theoretical framework (2002) Psychological Review, 109 (2), pp. 219-259; LeDoux, J., (2002) Synaptic self: How our brain become who we are?, , Viking, New York; Legrand, D., How the body shapes the mind? (2005) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (9), pp. 413-414; Legrand, D., Ruby, P., What is self-specific? Theoretical investigation and critical review of neuroimaging results (2009) Psychological Review, 116 (1), pp. 252-282; Logothetis, N.K., Murayama, Y., Augath, M., Steffen, T., Werner, J., Oeltermann, A., How not to study spontaneous activity? (2009) Neuroimage, 45 (4), pp. 1080-1089; Marcel, A.J., Lambie, J.A., How many selves in emotion experience? Reply to Dalgleish and Power (2004) (2004) Psychological Review, 111 (3), pp. 820-826; Metzinger, T., Gallese, V., The emergence of a shared action ontology: Building blocks for a theory (2003) Consciousness and Cognition, 12 (4), pp. 549-571; Mitchell, J.P., Banaji, M.R., Macrae, C.N., The link between social cognition and self-referential thought in the medial prefrontal cortex (2005) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17 (8), pp. 1306-1315; Morgane, P.J., Galler, J.R., Mokler, D.J., A review of systems and networks of the limbic forebrain/limbic midbrain (2005) Progress in Neurobiology, 75 (2), pp. 143-160; Morgane, P.J., Mokler, D.J., The limbic brain: Continuing resolution (2006) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30 (2), pp. 119-125; Muthukumaraswamy, S.D., Singh, K.D., Functional decoupling of BOLD and gamma-band amplitudes in human primary visual cortex (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30 (7), pp. 2000-2007; Nieuwenhuys, R., The greater limbic system, the emotional motor system and the brain (1996) Progress in Brain Research, 107, pp. 551-580; Nieuwenhuys, R., Veening, J.G., van Domburg, P., (1988), 26 (2-3), pp. 131-163. , Core and paracores; some new chemoarchitectural entities in the mammalian neuraxis. Acta Morphologica Neerlando-ScandinavicaNieuwenhuys, R., Voogd, J., Van Huijzen, C., (2007) The human central nervous system: A synopsis and Atlas, , Springer, Berlin Heidelberg; Northoff, G., (2004) Philosophy of the brain. The brain problem, , John Benjamins Publisher, Amsterdam, New York; Northoff, G., Psychopathology and pathophysiology of the self in depression - Neuropsychiatric hypothesis (2007) Journal of Affective Disorders, 104 (1-3), pp. 1-14; Northoff, G., Bermpohl, F., Cortical midline structures and the self (2004) Trends in Cognitive Science, 8 (3), pp. 102-107; Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., Panksepp, J., Self-referential processing in our brain - A meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self (2006) Neuroimage, 31 (1), pp. 440-457; Northoff, G., Panksepp, J., The trans-species concept of self and the subcortical-cortical midline system (2008) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12 (7), pp. 259-264; Northoff, G., Qin, P., Nakao, T., Rest-stimulus interaction in the brain: A review (2010) Trends in Neurosciences, 33 (6), pp. 277-284; Northoff, G., Schneider, F., Rotte, M., Matthiae, C., Tempelmann, C., Wiebking, C., Differential parametric modulation of self-relatedness and emotions in different brain regions (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30 (2), pp. 369-382; Northoff, G., Walter, M., Schulte, R.F., Beck, J., Dydak, U., Henning, A., GABA concentrations in the human anterior cingulate cortex predict negative BOLD responses in fMRI (2007) Nature Neuroscience, 10 (12), pp. 1515-1517; Panksepp, J., (1998) Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions, , Oxford University Press; Panksepp, J., The preiconscious substrates of consciousness: Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the SELF (1998) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5, pp. 566-582; Panksepp, J., At the interface of the affective, behavioral, and cognitive neurosciences: Decoding the emotional feelings of the brain (2003) Brain and Cognition, 52 (1), pp. 4-14; Panksepp, J., The neuroevolutionary and neuroaffective psychobiology of the prosocial brain (2007) The Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology, pp. 145-162. , Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, R.I.M. Dunbar, L. Barrett (Eds.); Panksepp, J., Northoff, G., The trans-species core SELF: The emergence of active cultural and neuro-ecological agents through self-related processing within subcortical-cortical midline networks (2009) Consciousness and Cognition, 18 (1), pp. 193-215; Phan, K.L., Wager, T., Taylor, S.F., Liberzon, I., Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: A meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI (2002) Neuroimage, 16 (2), pp. 331-348; Platek, S.M., Loughead, J.W., Gur, R.C., Busch, S., Ruparel, K., Phend, N., Neural substrates for functionally discriminating self-face from personally familiar faces (2006) Human Brain Mapping, 27 (2), pp. 91-98; Qin, P., Di, H., Liu, Y., Yu, S., Gong, Q., Duncan, N., (2010), et al. Anterior cingulate activity and the self in disorders of consciousness. Human Brain Mapping, in pressRaichle, M.E., Two views of brain function (2010) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14 (4), pp. 180-190; Raichle, M.E., MacLeod, A.M., Snyder, A.Z., Powers, W.J., Gusnard, D.A., Shulman, G.L., A default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 98 (2), pp. 676-682; Schneider, F., Bermpohl, F., Heinzel, A., Rotte, M., Walter, M., Tempelmann, C., The resting brain and our self: Self-relatedness modulates resting state neural activity in cortical midline structures (2008) Neuroscience, 157 (1), pp. 120-131; Seger, C.A., Stone, M., Keenan, J.P., Cortical activations during judgments about the self and an other person (2004) Neuropsychologia, 42 (9), pp. 1168-1177; Stuss, D.T., Gallup, G.G., Alexander, M.P., The frontal lobes are necessary for 'theory of mind' (2001) Brain, 124 (PART 2), pp. 279-286; Sugiura, M., Sassa, Y., Watanabe, J., Akitsuki, Y., Maeda, Y., Matsue, Y., Anatomical segregation of representations of personally familiar and famous people in the temporal and parietal cortices (2008) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21 (10), pp. 1855-1868; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Kelley, W.M., Funnell, M.G., Gazzaniga, M.S., Macrae, C.N., Mike or me? Self-recognition in a split-brain patient (2002) Nature Neuroscience, 5 (9), pp. 841-842; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Macrae, C.N., Kelley, W.M., Gazzaniga, M.S., Out of contact, out of mind: The distributed nature of the self (2003) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1001, pp. 65-78; Uddin, L.Q., Iacoboni, M., Lange, C., Keenan, J.P., The self and social cognition: The role of cortical midline structures and mirror neurons (2007) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 (4), pp. 153-157; Vanderwal, T., Hunyadi, E., Grupe, D.W., Connors, C.M., Schultz, R.T., Self, mother and abstract other: An fMRI study of reflective social processing (2008) Neuroimage, 41 (4), pp. 1437-1446; Vogeley, K., Fink, G.R., Neural correlates of the first-person-perspective (2003) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (1), pp. 38-42; Wager, T.D., Lindquist, M.A., Nichols, T.E., Kober, H., Van Snellenberg, J.X., Evaluating the consistency and specificity of neuroimaging data using meta-analysis (2009) Neuroimage, 45 (SUPPL. 1), pp. S210-S221; Walter, M., Henning, A., Grimm, S., Schulte, R.F., Beck, J., Dydak, U., The relationship between aberrant neuronal activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate, altered glutamatergic metabolism, and anhedonia in major depression (2009) Archives of General Psychiatry, 66 (5), pp. 478-486; Wicker, B., Ruby, P., Royet, J.P., Fonlupt, P., A relation between rest and the self in the brain? (2003) Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, 43 (2), pp. 224-230; Yaoi, K., Osaka, N., Osaka, M., Is the self special in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex? An fMRI study (2009) Social Neuroscience, 1, p. 9; Zahavi, D., (2005) Subjectivity and selfhood: Investigating the First-person perspective, , The MIT Press, London; Zhu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, J., Han, S., Neural basis of cultural influence on self-representation (2007) Neuroimage, 34 (3), pp. 1310-1316

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - In this paper we consider two major issues: conceptual-experimental approaches to the self, and the neuroanatomical substrate of the self. We distinguish content- and processed-based concepts of the self that entail different experimental strategies, and anatomically, we investigate the concept of midline structures in further detail and present a novel view on the anatomy of an integrated subcortical-cortical midline system. Presenting meta-analytic evidence, we show that the anterior paralimbic, e.g. midline, regions do indeed seem to be specific for self-specific stimuli. We conclude that future investigation of the self need to develop novel concepts that are more empirically plausible than those currently in use. Different concepts of self will require novel experimental designs that include, for example, the brain's resting state activity as an independent variable. Modifications of both conceptual and anatomical dimensions will allow an empirically more plausible account of the relationship between brain and self. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

AB - In this paper we consider two major issues: conceptual-experimental approaches to the self, and the neuroanatomical substrate of the self. We distinguish content- and processed-based concepts of the self that entail different experimental strategies, and anatomically, we investigate the concept of midline structures in further detail and present a novel view on the anatomy of an integrated subcortical-cortical midline system. Presenting meta-analytic evidence, we show that the anterior paralimbic, e.g. midline, regions do indeed seem to be specific for self-specific stimuli. We conclude that future investigation of the self need to develop novel concepts that are more empirically plausible than those currently in use. Different concepts of self will require novel experimental designs that include, for example, the brain's resting state activity as an independent variable. Modifications of both conceptual and anatomical dimensions will allow an empirically more plausible account of the relationship between brain and self. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

KW - Brain image

KW - Cortical midline structures

KW - The self

KW - article

KW - brain cortex

KW - brain function

KW - electroencephalogram

KW - experimental design

KW - functional magnetic resonance imaging

KW - human

KW - limbic cortex

KW - methodology

KW - neuroanatomy

KW - neuroimaging

KW - positron emission tomography

KW - self concept

KW - stimulus response

KW - Brain

KW - Brain Mapping

KW - Ego

KW - Humans

KW - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

KW - Positron-Emission Tomography

U2 - 10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.011

DO - 10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.011

M3 - Article

VL - 20

SP - 52

EP - 63

JO - Consciousness and Cognition

T2 - Consciousness and Cognition

JF - Consciousness and Cognition

SN - 1053-8100

IS - 1

ER -