Background: Blood stream infection (BSI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, information is lacking about patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens of BSI after OPCAB.
Methods: One thousand ten consecutive patients undergoing OPCAB between 2001 and 2012 were included in a retrospective case-control study. A propensity-matched control was used for risk factor analysis.
Results: Of the 1,010 patients, 26 patients (2.6%) had 32 episodes of BSI after surgery, which occurred at a median of 14 d after surgery. Gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci were distributed equally. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the pathogen identified most frequently, and the most common source of infection was a surgical site. The hospital mortality rate was 54%. By univariable analysis, diabetes mellitus, pre-operative renal impairment, pre-operative low hemoglobin, pre-operative endotracheal intubation, dialysis before or after surgery, cardiogenic shock, left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, non-elective surgery, low number of distal anastomoses, atrial fibrillation after surgery, and re-operation for bleeding were significant risk factors. By multivariable analysis, the independent risk factors were left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, low number of distal anastomoses, atrial fibrillation after surgery, and dialysis after surgery.
Conclusions: Blood stream infections remained a common complication after OPCAB, and the mortality was high. Gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci were distributed equally. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was the pathogen identified most frequently. Preventive tactics should target likely pathogens and high-risk patients undergoing OPCAB.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases
- Microbiology (medical)