Beneficial effects of cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia complex supplement on diet induced obesity in rats

Chi Chang Huang, Yu Tang Tung, Wen Ching Huang, Yi Ming Chen, Yi Ju Hsu, Mei Chich Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. Methods: To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group): normal diet with vehicle treatment (Control), and HED to receive vehicle or CCGG by oral gavage at 129, 258, or 517 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, designated the HED, 0.5X, 1X and 1X groups, respectively. Results: HED induced macrovesicular fat in the liver and the formation of adipose tissues, and significantly increased the levels of serum free fatty acids (FFA), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC levels, and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues. Treatment with CCGG could significantly decrease the levels of FFA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C, AST, ALT, and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC contents, and increase the levels of HDL-C in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues compared to the HED group. Liver histopathology also showed that CCGG could significantly reduce the incidence of liver lesions. Conclusion: These results suggested that CCGG stimulated lipid metabolism in HED-induced obese rats, which is attributable to fat mobilization from adipose tissue.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100
JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 12 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Garcinia
Coffee
Tea
Obesity
Diet
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Triglycerides
Fats
Cholesterol
Liver
Ketone Bodies
Serum
Polyphenols
Aspartate Aminotransferases
Lipase
Alanine Transaminase
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Adipose Tissue
Adiposity

Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Fatty Liver
  • High energy diet
  • LDL-C
  • Lipase
  • Polyphenols

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Beneficial effects of cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia complex supplement on diet induced obesity in rats. / Huang, Chi Chang; Tung, Yu Tang; Huang, Wen Ching; Chen, Yi Ming; Hsu, Yi Ju; Hsu, Mei Chich.

In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 1, 100, 12.03.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huang, Chi Chang ; Tung, Yu Tang ; Huang, Wen Ching ; Chen, Yi Ming ; Hsu, Yi Ju ; Hsu, Mei Chich. / Beneficial effects of cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia complex supplement on diet induced obesity in rats. In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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T1 - Beneficial effects of cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia complex supplement on diet induced obesity in rats

AU - Huang, Chi Chang

AU - Tung, Yu Tang

AU - Huang, Wen Ching

AU - Chen, Yi Ming

AU - Hsu, Yi Ju

AU - Hsu, Mei Chich

PY - 2016/3/12

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N2 - Background: Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. Methods: To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group): normal diet with vehicle treatment (Control), and HED to receive vehicle or CCGG by oral gavage at 129, 258, or 517 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, designated the HED, 0.5X, 1X and 1X groups, respectively. Results: HED induced macrovesicular fat in the liver and the formation of adipose tissues, and significantly increased the levels of serum free fatty acids (FFA), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC levels, and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues. Treatment with CCGG could significantly decrease the levels of FFA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C, AST, ALT, and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC contents, and increase the levels of HDL-C in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues compared to the HED group. Liver histopathology also showed that CCGG could significantly reduce the incidence of liver lesions. Conclusion: These results suggested that CCGG stimulated lipid metabolism in HED-induced obese rats, which is attributable to fat mobilization from adipose tissue.

AB - Background: Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. Methods: To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group): normal diet with vehicle treatment (Control), and HED to receive vehicle or CCGG by oral gavage at 129, 258, or 517 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, designated the HED, 0.5X, 1X and 1X groups, respectively. Results: HED induced macrovesicular fat in the liver and the formation of adipose tissues, and significantly increased the levels of serum free fatty acids (FFA), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC levels, and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues. Treatment with CCGG could significantly decrease the levels of FFA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C, AST, ALT, and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC contents, and increase the levels of HDL-C in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues compared to the HED group. Liver histopathology also showed that CCGG could significantly reduce the incidence of liver lesions. Conclusion: These results suggested that CCGG stimulated lipid metabolism in HED-induced obese rats, which is attributable to fat mobilization from adipose tissue.

KW - Cholesterol

KW - Fatty Liver

KW - High energy diet

KW - LDL-C

KW - Lipase

KW - Polyphenols

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