Bacterial meningitis in infants and children in southern Taiwan: Emphasis on Haemophilus influenzae type B infection

C. C. Liu, J. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During a four-year-period from November 1988 to October 1992, 41 cases of bacterial meningitis with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and/or CSF antigen test were collected at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ages of the subjects ranged from 32 days to 13 years, with a median of seven months. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The most common causative agent was Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, 29.3%), followed by group B β-hemolytic streptococci (GBS, 24.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.0%), Escherichia coli (4.9%), Neisseria meningitidis (4.9%), Salmonella species (4.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.6%), and viridans streptococci (2.6%). The onset of GBS meningitis was always prior to four months of age. Of the 41 cases studied, 27 (65.9%) were aged from two months to five years; 12 (44.4%) of these had meningitis caused by Hib. Most of the cases (90.2%) had a fever as the first clinical manifestation. Ampicillin combined with a third-generation cephalosporin was effective against most of the causative pathogens. The most frequently encountered short-term sequelae were seizures (64.7%), subdural effusion (55.9%) and ventriculomegaly (44.1%). Observations on long-term sequelae are ongoing. While the case-fatality rate was as high as 33.3% in S. pneumoniae, and 25% in Hib-infected patients, the overall mortality rate was 17.1%. There is a need for greater emphasis on prevention through the use of available vaccines, including the newly introduced conjugate vaccines against Hib which are capable of eliciting immune responses in infants as young as two months.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)884-888
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
Volume92
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Haemophilus influenzae type b
Bacterial Meningitides
Haemophilus influenzae
Taiwan
Infection
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Meningitis
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Subdural Effusion
Viridans Streptococci
Conjugate Vaccines
Streptococcus agalactiae
Neisseria meningitidis
Mortality
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Cephalosporins
Ampicillin
Salmonella
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Seizures

Keywords

  • bacterial meningitis
  • dexamethasone
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b
  • immunization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Bacterial meningitis in infants and children in southern Taiwan : Emphasis on Haemophilus influenzae type B infection. / Liu, C. C.; Chen, J. S.; Lin, C. H.; Chen, Y. J.; Huang, C. C.

In: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, Vol. 92, No. 10, 1993, p. 884-888.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{818e894f313f4c8886da2c0ff2240e6b,
title = "Bacterial meningitis in infants and children in southern Taiwan: Emphasis on Haemophilus influenzae type B infection",
abstract = "During a four-year-period from November 1988 to October 1992, 41 cases of bacterial meningitis with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and/or CSF antigen test were collected at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ages of the subjects ranged from 32 days to 13 years, with a median of seven months. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The most common causative agent was Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, 29.3{\%}), followed by group B β-hemolytic streptococci (GBS, 24.4{\%}), Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.0{\%}), Escherichia coli (4.9{\%}), Neisseria meningitidis (4.9{\%}), Salmonella species (4.9{\%}), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.9{\%}), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.6{\%}), and viridans streptococci (2.6{\%}). The onset of GBS meningitis was always prior to four months of age. Of the 41 cases studied, 27 (65.9{\%}) were aged from two months to five years; 12 (44.4{\%}) of these had meningitis caused by Hib. Most of the cases (90.2{\%}) had a fever as the first clinical manifestation. Ampicillin combined with a third-generation cephalosporin was effective against most of the causative pathogens. The most frequently encountered short-term sequelae were seizures (64.7{\%}), subdural effusion (55.9{\%}) and ventriculomegaly (44.1{\%}). Observations on long-term sequelae are ongoing. While the case-fatality rate was as high as 33.3{\%} in S. pneumoniae, and 25{\%} in Hib-infected patients, the overall mortality rate was 17.1{\%}. There is a need for greater emphasis on prevention through the use of available vaccines, including the newly introduced conjugate vaccines against Hib which are capable of eliciting immune responses in infants as young as two months.",
keywords = "bacterial meningitis, dexamethasone, Haemophilus influenzae type b, immunization",
author = "Liu, {C. C.} and Chen, {J. S.} and Lin, {C. H.} and Chen, {Y. J.} and Huang, {C. C.}",
year = "1993",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
pages = "884--888",
journal = "Journal of the Formosan Medical Association",
issn = "0929-6646",
publisher = "Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bacterial meningitis in infants and children in southern Taiwan

T2 - Emphasis on Haemophilus influenzae type B infection

AU - Liu, C. C.

AU - Chen, J. S.

AU - Lin, C. H.

AU - Chen, Y. J.

AU - Huang, C. C.

PY - 1993

Y1 - 1993

N2 - During a four-year-period from November 1988 to October 1992, 41 cases of bacterial meningitis with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and/or CSF antigen test were collected at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ages of the subjects ranged from 32 days to 13 years, with a median of seven months. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The most common causative agent was Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, 29.3%), followed by group B β-hemolytic streptococci (GBS, 24.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.0%), Escherichia coli (4.9%), Neisseria meningitidis (4.9%), Salmonella species (4.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.6%), and viridans streptococci (2.6%). The onset of GBS meningitis was always prior to four months of age. Of the 41 cases studied, 27 (65.9%) were aged from two months to five years; 12 (44.4%) of these had meningitis caused by Hib. Most of the cases (90.2%) had a fever as the first clinical manifestation. Ampicillin combined with a third-generation cephalosporin was effective against most of the causative pathogens. The most frequently encountered short-term sequelae were seizures (64.7%), subdural effusion (55.9%) and ventriculomegaly (44.1%). Observations on long-term sequelae are ongoing. While the case-fatality rate was as high as 33.3% in S. pneumoniae, and 25% in Hib-infected patients, the overall mortality rate was 17.1%. There is a need for greater emphasis on prevention through the use of available vaccines, including the newly introduced conjugate vaccines against Hib which are capable of eliciting immune responses in infants as young as two months.

AB - During a four-year-period from November 1988 to October 1992, 41 cases of bacterial meningitis with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and/or CSF antigen test were collected at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ages of the subjects ranged from 32 days to 13 years, with a median of seven months. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The most common causative agent was Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, 29.3%), followed by group B β-hemolytic streptococci (GBS, 24.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.0%), Escherichia coli (4.9%), Neisseria meningitidis (4.9%), Salmonella species (4.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.6%), and viridans streptococci (2.6%). The onset of GBS meningitis was always prior to four months of age. Of the 41 cases studied, 27 (65.9%) were aged from two months to five years; 12 (44.4%) of these had meningitis caused by Hib. Most of the cases (90.2%) had a fever as the first clinical manifestation. Ampicillin combined with a third-generation cephalosporin was effective against most of the causative pathogens. The most frequently encountered short-term sequelae were seizures (64.7%), subdural effusion (55.9%) and ventriculomegaly (44.1%). Observations on long-term sequelae are ongoing. While the case-fatality rate was as high as 33.3% in S. pneumoniae, and 25% in Hib-infected patients, the overall mortality rate was 17.1%. There is a need for greater emphasis on prevention through the use of available vaccines, including the newly introduced conjugate vaccines against Hib which are capable of eliciting immune responses in infants as young as two months.

KW - bacterial meningitis

KW - dexamethasone

KW - Haemophilus influenzae type b

KW - immunization

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027858256&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027858256&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 7908569

AN - SCOPUS:0027858256

VL - 92

SP - 884

EP - 888

JO - Journal of the Formosan Medical Association

JF - Journal of the Formosan Medical Association

SN - 0929-6646

IS - 10

ER -