Attachment of the levator ani muscle extends to the superior ramus of the pubic bone through electrophysiological and anatomical examinations

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Abstract

Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) of pelvic floor muscles is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain (CPP). The pathological mechanisms and treatments of MFPP are complex and still unclear until now. The levator ani muscle (LAM) is the major pelvic floor muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the fascia and attachment of LAM through the electromyogram (EMG) and cadaver dissection. Electrophysiological stimulation of the obturator fascia above the arcus tendinous levator ani (ATLA) could trigger contraction and electrophysiological changes in LAM insertion. The LAM of embalmed adult cadavers was examined especially in the area above the ATLA. Some skeletal muscle fibers were found above the ATLA within the obturator fascia and were confirmed by Masson’s trichrome section staining. Our electromyography (EMG) and anatomical data implied that the attachment of LAM aponeurosis extended beyond ATLA to the inferior border of the superior ramus of the pubic bone. The new discovered attachment of LAM could provide a reference position for clinical diagnosis and treatment of MFPP or CPP.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9483
JournalScientific Reports
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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