Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders

T. Senghore, Y.-F. Li, F.-C. Sung, M.-H. Tsai, C.-H. Hua, C.-S. Liu, M.-F. Hung, C.-C. Yeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aim: The study aimed to investigate the role of two polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T and A1298C, in the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders (PMODs). Materials and Methods: Genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for 224 PMOD cases and 485 age-matched controls. Results: The C677T T allele-carrying genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of PMODs [odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.44-0.86]. Haplotype analysis also indicated that the 677T/1298A haplotype was associated with a decreased risk of PMODs (OR=0.56, 95%CI=0.40-0.80). No significant interaction was observed between MTHFR polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the T-allele-carrying MTHFR C677T genotype or haplotype may reduce the risk of PMODs. However, these observations require further confirmation using larger samples. © 2018 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4021-4026
Number of pages6
JournalAnticancer Research
Volume38
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
Haplotypes
Genotype
Alleles
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Life Style
Polymerase Chain Reaction

Keywords

  • Genetic polymorphism
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
  • Potentially malignant oral disorders
  • Taiwan
  • 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (FADH2)
  • genomic DNA
  • methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH2)
  • adult
  • alcohol consumption
  • allele
  • Article
  • carcinogenesis
  • cigarette smoking
  • comparative study
  • controlled study
  • genetic association
  • genotype
  • haplotype
  • human
  • lifestyle
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • molecular pathology
  • mouth carcinoma
  • potentially malignant oral disorder
  • priority journal
  • procedures
  • risk reduction
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • case control study
  • genetic predisposition
  • genetics
  • middle aged
  • mouth tumor
  • polymerase chain reaction
  • restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • Adult
  • Alleles
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Neoplasms
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

Cite this

Senghore, T., Li, Y-F., Sung, F-C., Tsai, M-H., Hua, C-H., Liu, C-S., ... Yeh, C-C. (2018). Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders. Anticancer Research, 38(7), 4021-4026.

Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders. / Senghore, T.; Li, Y.-F.; Sung, F.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Hua, C.-H.; Liu, C.-S.; Hung, M.-F.; Yeh, C.-C.

In: Anticancer Research, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2018, p. 4021-4026.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Senghore, T, Li, Y-F, Sung, F-C, Tsai, M-H, Hua, C-H, Liu, C-S, Hung, M-F & Yeh, C-C 2018, 'Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders', Anticancer Research, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 4021-4026.
Senghore T, Li Y-F, Sung F-C, Tsai M-H, Hua C-H, Liu C-S et al. Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders. Anticancer Research. 2018;38(7):4021-4026.
Senghore, T. ; Li, Y.-F. ; Sung, F.-C. ; Tsai, M.-H. ; Hua, C.-H. ; Liu, C.-S. ; Hung, M.-F. ; Yeh, C.-C. / Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders. In: Anticancer Research. 2018 ; Vol. 38, No. 7. pp. 4021-4026.
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abstract = "Aim: The study aimed to investigate the role of two polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T and A1298C, in the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders (PMODs). Materials and Methods: Genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for 224 PMOD cases and 485 age-matched controls. Results: The C677T T allele-carrying genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of PMODs [odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI)=0.44-0.86]. Haplotype analysis also indicated that the 677T/1298A haplotype was associated with a decreased risk of PMODs (OR=0.56, 95{\%}CI=0.40-0.80). No significant interaction was observed between MTHFR polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the T-allele-carrying MTHFR C677T genotype or haplotype may reduce the risk of PMODs. However, these observations require further confirmation using larger samples. {\circledC} 2018 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "Genetic polymorphism, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Potentially malignant oral disorders, Taiwan, 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (FADH2), genomic DNA, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH2), adult, alcohol consumption, allele, Article, carcinogenesis, cigarette smoking, comparative study, controlled study, genetic association, genotype, haplotype, human, lifestyle, major clinical study, male, molecular pathology, mouth carcinoma, potentially malignant oral disorder, priority journal, procedures, risk reduction, single nucleotide polymorphism, case control study, genetic predisposition, genetics, middle aged, mouth tumor, polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, Adult, Alleles, Case-Control Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genotype, Haplotypes, Humans, Male, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2), Middle Aged, Mouth Neoplasms, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Genetic polymorphism, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Potentially malignant oral disorders, Taiwan",
author = "T. Senghore and Y.-F. Li and F.-C. Sung and M.-H. Tsai and C.-H. Hua and C.-S. Liu and M.-F. Hung and C.-C. Yeh",
note = "Export Date: 18 October 2018 CODEN: ANTRD 通訊地址: Yeh, C.-C.; School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taiwan; 電子郵件: ccyeh@tmu.edu.tw 化學物質/CAS: 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (FADH2), 9028-69-7; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH2), 71822-25-8; Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) 參考文獻: Gupta, B., Johnson, N.W., Kumar, N., Global epidemiology of head and neck cancers: A continuing challenge (2016) Oncology, 91 (1), pp. 13-23; Chiang, C.-J., Lo, W.-C., Yang, Y.-W., You, S.-L., Chen, C.-J., Lai, M.S., Incidence and survival of adult cancer patients in Taiwan, 2002-2012 (2016) J Formosan Med Assoc, 115 (12), p. 13; Yang, P.Y., Chen, Y.T., Wang, Y.H., Su, N.Y., Yu, H.C., Chang, Y.C., Malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study (2017) J Oral Pathol Med, 46 (10), pp. 1040-1045; Lyu, M.Y., Guo, Y.S., Li, S., Yang, D., Hua, H., Hospital-based epidemiological and clinical characterisation of the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in a Chinese population (2017) Int Dent J, 67 (4), pp. 252-259; Paulino, Y.C., Hurwitz, E.L., Warnakulasuriya, S., Gatewood, R.R., Pierson, K.D., Tenorio, L.F., Novotny, R., Badowski, G., Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan (2014) BMC Oral Health, 14, p. 151; Fenech, M., The role of folic acid and vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells (2001) Mutat Res, 475 (1-2), pp. 57-67; Miri-Moghaddam, E., Saravani, S., Garme, Y., Khosravi, A., Bazi, A., Motazedian, J., Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma in South-East Iran (2016) J Oral Pathol Med, 45 (2), pp. 96-100; Weisberg, I., Tran, P., Christensen, B., Sibani, S., Rozen, R., A second genetic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) associated with decreased enzyme activity (1998) Mol Genet Metab, 64 (3), pp. 169-172; Fenech, M., The role of folic acid and vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells (2001) Mutat Res, 475 (1-2), pp. 57-67; Frosst, P., Blom, H.J., Milos, R., Goyette, P., Sheppard, C.A., Matthews, R.G., Boers, G.J., Rozen, R., A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (1995) Nat Genet, 10 (1), pp. 111-113; Van Der Put, N.M., Gabreels, F., Stevens, E.M., Smeitink, J.A., Trijbels, F.J., Eskes, T.K., Van Den Heuvel, L.P., Blom, H.J., A second common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: An additional risk factor for neural-tube defects? (1998) Am J Hum Genet, 62 (5), pp. 1044-1051; Tsai, C.W., Hsu, C.F., Tsai, M.H., Tsou, Y.A., Hua, C.H., Chang, W.S., Lin, C.C., Bau, D.T., Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, smoking habit, metastasis and oral cancer in Taiwan (2011) Anticancer Res, 31 (6), pp. 2395-2399; Warnakulasuriya, S., Johnson, N.W., Van Der Waal, I., Nomenclature and classification of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa (2007) J Oral Pathol Med, 36 (10), pp. 575-580; Lievers, K.J., Boers, G.H., Verhoef, P., Den Heijer, M., Kluijtmans, L.A., Van Der Put, N.M., Trijbels, F.J., Blom, H.J., A second common variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and its relationship to MTHFR enzyme activity, homocysteine, and cardiovascular disease risk (2001) J Mol Med, 79 (9), pp. 522-528; Guo, S., Jiang, X., Chen, X., Chen, L., Li, X., Jia, Y., The protective effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism against prostate cancer risk: Evidence from 23 case-control studies (2015) Gene, 565 (1), pp. 90-95; Sohn, K.J., Croxford, R., Yates, Z., Lucock, M., Kim, Y.I., Effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism on chemosensitivity of colon and breast cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate (2004) J Natl Cancer Inst, 96 (2), pp. 134-144; Jia, J., Ma, Z., Wu, S., Positive association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and oral cancer risk: A meta-analysis (2014) Tumour Biol, 35 (5), pp. 4943-4948; Barbosa, A., Dos Santos, M., De Podesta, J.R., Gouvea, S.A., Von Zeidler, S.V., Louro, I.D., De Cordeiro-Silva, M.F., Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cystathionine beta-synthase in oral cancer - A case-control study in southeastern Brazilians (2016) Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, 82 (5), pp. 558-566; Chen, Z., Karaplis, A.C., Ackerman, S.L., Pogribny, I.P., Melnyk, S., Lussier-Cacan, S., Chen, M.F., Rozen, R., Mice deficient in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase exhibit hyperhomocysteinemia and decreased methylation capacity, with neuropathology and aortic lipid deposition (2001) Hum Mol Genet, 10 (5), pp. 433-443; Liu, C.S., Tsai, C.W., Hsia, T.C., Wang, R.F., Liu, C.J., Hang, L.W., Chiang, S.Y., Bau, D.T., Interaction of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype and smoking habit in Taiwanese lung cancer patients (2009) Cancer Genomics Proteomics, 6 (6), pp. 325-329; Chen, J., Ma, J., Stampfer, M.J., Palomeque, C., Selhub, J., Hunter, D.J., Linkage disequilibrium between the 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms in human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and their contributions to risk of colorectal cancer (2002) Pharmacogenetics, 12 (4), pp. 339-342; Yang, C.X., Matsuo, K., Ito, H., Shinoda, M., Hatooka, S., Hirose, K., Wakai, K., Tajima, K., Gene-environment interactions between alcohol drinking and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism impact on esophageal cancer risk: Results of a case-control study in Japan (2005) Carcinogenesis, 26 (7), pp. 1285-1290; Zhuo, X., Song, J., Li, D., Wu, Y., Zhou, Q., MTHFR C677T polymorphism interaction with heavy alcohol consumption increases head and neck carcinoma risk (2015) Sci Rep, 5, p. 10671; Nazki, F.H., Sameer, A.S., Ganaie, B.A., Folate: Metabolism, genes, polymorphisms and the associated diseases (2014) Gene, 533 (1), pp. 11-20",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "4021--4026",
journal = "Anticancer Research",
issn = "0250-7005",
publisher = "International Institute of Anticancer Research",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders

AU - Senghore, T.

AU - Li, Y.-F.

AU - Sung, F.-C.

AU - Tsai, M.-H.

AU - Hua, C.-H.

AU - Liu, C.-S.

AU - Hung, M.-F.

AU - Yeh, C.-C.

N1 - Export Date: 18 October 2018 CODEN: ANTRD 通訊地址: Yeh, C.-C.; School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taiwan; 電子郵件: ccyeh@tmu.edu.tw 化學物質/CAS: 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (FADH2), 9028-69-7; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH2), 71822-25-8; Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) 參考文獻: Gupta, B., Johnson, N.W., Kumar, N., Global epidemiology of head and neck cancers: A continuing challenge (2016) Oncology, 91 (1), pp. 13-23; Chiang, C.-J., Lo, W.-C., Yang, Y.-W., You, S.-L., Chen, C.-J., Lai, M.S., Incidence and survival of adult cancer patients in Taiwan, 2002-2012 (2016) J Formosan Med Assoc, 115 (12), p. 13; Yang, P.Y., Chen, Y.T., Wang, Y.H., Su, N.Y., Yu, H.C., Chang, Y.C., Malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study (2017) J Oral Pathol Med, 46 (10), pp. 1040-1045; Lyu, M.Y., Guo, Y.S., Li, S., Yang, D., Hua, H., Hospital-based epidemiological and clinical characterisation of the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in a Chinese population (2017) Int Dent J, 67 (4), pp. 252-259; Paulino, Y.C., Hurwitz, E.L., Warnakulasuriya, S., Gatewood, R.R., Pierson, K.D., Tenorio, L.F., Novotny, R., Badowski, G., Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan (2014) BMC Oral Health, 14, p. 151; Fenech, M., The role of folic acid and vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells (2001) Mutat Res, 475 (1-2), pp. 57-67; Miri-Moghaddam, E., Saravani, S., Garme, Y., Khosravi, A., Bazi, A., Motazedian, J., Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma in South-East Iran (2016) J Oral Pathol Med, 45 (2), pp. 96-100; Weisberg, I., Tran, P., Christensen, B., Sibani, S., Rozen, R., A second genetic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) associated with decreased enzyme activity (1998) Mol Genet Metab, 64 (3), pp. 169-172; Fenech, M., The role of folic acid and vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells (2001) Mutat Res, 475 (1-2), pp. 57-67; Frosst, P., Blom, H.J., Milos, R., Goyette, P., Sheppard, C.A., Matthews, R.G., Boers, G.J., Rozen, R., A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (1995) Nat Genet, 10 (1), pp. 111-113; Van Der Put, N.M., Gabreels, F., Stevens, E.M., Smeitink, J.A., Trijbels, F.J., Eskes, T.K., Van Den Heuvel, L.P., Blom, H.J., A second common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: An additional risk factor for neural-tube defects? (1998) Am J Hum Genet, 62 (5), pp. 1044-1051; Tsai, C.W., Hsu, C.F., Tsai, M.H., Tsou, Y.A., Hua, C.H., Chang, W.S., Lin, C.C., Bau, D.T., Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, smoking habit, metastasis and oral cancer in Taiwan (2011) Anticancer Res, 31 (6), pp. 2395-2399; Warnakulasuriya, S., Johnson, N.W., Van Der Waal, I., Nomenclature and classification of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa (2007) J Oral Pathol Med, 36 (10), pp. 575-580; Lievers, K.J., Boers, G.H., Verhoef, P., Den Heijer, M., Kluijtmans, L.A., Van Der Put, N.M., Trijbels, F.J., Blom, H.J., A second common variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and its relationship to MTHFR enzyme activity, homocysteine, and cardiovascular disease risk (2001) J Mol Med, 79 (9), pp. 522-528; Guo, S., Jiang, X., Chen, X., Chen, L., Li, X., Jia, Y., The protective effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism against prostate cancer risk: Evidence from 23 case-control studies (2015) Gene, 565 (1), pp. 90-95; Sohn, K.J., Croxford, R., Yates, Z., Lucock, M., Kim, Y.I., Effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism on chemosensitivity of colon and breast cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate (2004) J Natl Cancer Inst, 96 (2), pp. 134-144; Jia, J., Ma, Z., Wu, S., Positive association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and oral cancer risk: A meta-analysis (2014) Tumour Biol, 35 (5), pp. 4943-4948; Barbosa, A., Dos Santos, M., De Podesta, J.R., Gouvea, S.A., Von Zeidler, S.V., Louro, I.D., De Cordeiro-Silva, M.F., Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cystathionine beta-synthase in oral cancer - A case-control study in southeastern Brazilians (2016) Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, 82 (5), pp. 558-566; Chen, Z., Karaplis, A.C., Ackerman, S.L., Pogribny, I.P., Melnyk, S., Lussier-Cacan, S., Chen, M.F., Rozen, R., Mice deficient in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase exhibit hyperhomocysteinemia and decreased methylation capacity, with neuropathology and aortic lipid deposition (2001) Hum Mol Genet, 10 (5), pp. 433-443; Liu, C.S., Tsai, C.W., Hsia, T.C., Wang, R.F., Liu, C.J., Hang, L.W., Chiang, S.Y., Bau, D.T., Interaction of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype and smoking habit in Taiwanese lung cancer patients (2009) Cancer Genomics Proteomics, 6 (6), pp. 325-329; Chen, J., Ma, J., Stampfer, M.J., Palomeque, C., Selhub, J., Hunter, D.J., Linkage disequilibrium between the 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms in human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and their contributions to risk of colorectal cancer (2002) Pharmacogenetics, 12 (4), pp. 339-342; Yang, C.X., Matsuo, K., Ito, H., Shinoda, M., Hatooka, S., Hirose, K., Wakai, K., Tajima, K., Gene-environment interactions between alcohol drinking and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism impact on esophageal cancer risk: Results of a case-control study in Japan (2005) Carcinogenesis, 26 (7), pp. 1285-1290; Zhuo, X., Song, J., Li, D., Wu, Y., Zhou, Q., MTHFR C677T polymorphism interaction with heavy alcohol consumption increases head and neck carcinoma risk (2015) Sci Rep, 5, p. 10671; Nazki, F.H., Sameer, A.S., Ganaie, B.A., Folate: Metabolism, genes, polymorphisms and the associated diseases (2014) Gene, 533 (1), pp. 11-20

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Aim: The study aimed to investigate the role of two polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T and A1298C, in the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders (PMODs). Materials and Methods: Genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for 224 PMOD cases and 485 age-matched controls. Results: The C677T T allele-carrying genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of PMODs [odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.44-0.86]. Haplotype analysis also indicated that the 677T/1298A haplotype was associated with a decreased risk of PMODs (OR=0.56, 95%CI=0.40-0.80). No significant interaction was observed between MTHFR polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the T-allele-carrying MTHFR C677T genotype or haplotype may reduce the risk of PMODs. However, these observations require further confirmation using larger samples. © 2018 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved.

AB - Aim: The study aimed to investigate the role of two polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T and A1298C, in the risk of potentially malignant oral disorders (PMODs). Materials and Methods: Genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for 224 PMOD cases and 485 age-matched controls. Results: The C677T T allele-carrying genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of PMODs [odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.44-0.86]. Haplotype analysis also indicated that the 677T/1298A haplotype was associated with a decreased risk of PMODs (OR=0.56, 95%CI=0.40-0.80). No significant interaction was observed between MTHFR polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the T-allele-carrying MTHFR C677T genotype or haplotype may reduce the risk of PMODs. However, these observations require further confirmation using larger samples. © 2018 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved.

KW - Genetic polymorphism

KW - Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

KW - Potentially malignant oral disorders

KW - Taiwan

KW - 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (FADH2)

KW - genomic DNA

KW - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH2)

KW - adult

KW - alcohol consumption

KW - allele

KW - Article

KW - carcinogenesis

KW - cigarette smoking

KW - comparative study

KW - controlled study

KW - genetic association

KW - genotype

KW - haplotype

KW - human

KW - lifestyle

KW - major clinical study

KW - male

KW - molecular pathology

KW - mouth carcinoma

KW - potentially malignant oral disorder

KW - priority journal

KW - procedures

KW - risk reduction

KW - single nucleotide polymorphism

KW - case control study

KW - genetic predisposition

KW - genetics

KW - middle aged

KW - mouth tumor

KW - polymerase chain reaction

KW - restriction fragment length polymorphism

KW - Adult

KW - Alleles

KW - Case-Control Studies

KW - Genetic Predisposition to Disease

KW - Genotype

KW - Haplotypes

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Mouth Neoplasms

KW - Polymerase Chain Reaction

KW - Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length

KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

KW - Genetic polymorphism

KW - Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

KW - Potentially malignant oral disorders

KW - Taiwan

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 4021

EP - 4026

JO - Anticancer Research

JF - Anticancer Research

SN - 0250-7005

IS - 7

ER -