Association of Dietary Fish and n-3 Unsaturated Fatty Acid Consumption with Diabetic Nephropathy from a District Hospital in Northern Taiwan

Shih Ping Lin, Chiao Ming Chen, Kang Ling Wang, Kun Lin Wu, Sing Chung Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nephropathy caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) is the main cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To understand the association of dietary intake with renal function indicators among patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), this cross-sectional study was conducted at the dietetic consultation clinic of the Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital in Taiwan. In total, 317 participants were recruited for this study. Patients with diabetes who had a urinary albumin–creatinine ratio (UACR) of ≥30 mg/g were defined as having DN. The anthropometric characteristics, blood biochemistry, and renal function of the participants were assessed. Furthermore, a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) was administered to investigate the dietary intake of the participants in the DM and DN groups. The result showed that participants in the DN group were older, had longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic control and renal function than those in the DM group. Logistic regression models revealed that intake of high-fat marine fishes had the lowest odds ratio (OR) for DN risk compared with other fishes (OR: 0.868; 95% CI: 0.781–0.965, p = 0.009). Shellfish, soybean products, and skim milk also provided better protective effects to decrease the risk of DN. A further analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids revealed that Σn-3 PUFAs significantly reduced DN risk, while Σn-6 PUFAs did not, especially EPA (OR: 0.821; 95% CI: 0.688–0.979, p = 0.029) and DHA (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.823–0.992, p = 0.033) regardless of whether the variables were adjusted, including diabetes duration, age, and HbA1c. Our findings suggest that a diet that incorporates high-fat fish, shellfish, soybean products, and a lower Σn-6/Σn-3 ratio can mitigate DN risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2148
JournalNutrients
Volume14
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • diabetes mellitus
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • estimated glomerular filtration rate
  • semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire
  • urinary albumin–creatinine ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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