Even though epididymoorchitis and testicular cancer (TC) may have similar pathophysiological pathways, no prior study has attempted to determine the association between these two diseases. This case-control study investigated the relationship between TC and prior epididymoorchitis by using a large population-based database. We used the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 to select 372 patients who had received a diagnosis of TC and 3,720 age-matched controls without TC. We found that of the total sample of 4,092 patients, 53 (1.3%) had received a diagnosis of epididymoorchitis prior to the index date. Patients with TC had a higher prevalence of prior epididymoorchitis than that of patients without TC (11.0% vs. 0.3%, p <0.001). Conditional logistic regression showed that prior epididymoorchitis was significantly associated with TC (crude OR = 38.24, 95% CI = 19.91-73.46). The association remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the other variables (OR = 47.17, 95% CI = 23.83-93.40). This study showed that patients with TC have higher odds of prior epididymoorchitis than do those without TC even after adjustment for potential confounders.
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