Association between swimming lessons, urbanisation, and drowning in Taiwan

W KAo, S Guttmacher, R Yaffee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Unintentional drowning remains a leading cause of injury-related death, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In 2004, approximately 388 000 people died from drowning, of which 96% occurred in LMIC. In 2001, the Taipei city government launched a school-based swimming programme aimed to reduce drowning. An evaluation of the impact of the swimming programme provides a better understanding to further prevent this global public health burden. Research Objectives 1. to examine the impact of a comprehensive school-based swimming programme on drowning; 2. to explore the association between urbanisation and drowning. Methods (1) Difference in differences (DID) is used to examine the impact of swimming programme on drowning; (2) time-series panel approach is used to assess the association between urbanisation and drowning mortality among 23 jurisdictions from 1980 to 2001. Results Swimming education was associated with a faster decline in drowning among policy-intervened groups. A ‘cross-over’ change, of which a policy-targeted group declined faster (from 6.7 to 1.7/100 000) and becomes lower in drowning compared to a non-intervened group (from 5.7 to 3.7/100 000, p value 0.023). Urbanisation was associated with the decline of drowning after controlling for medical services and household disposable income (p value=0.03 in fixed effect, multivariate regression model). Medical service was not associated with the drowning decline in Taiwan. Significance/Contribution to the Field This study provides empirical evidence supporting a protective effect of a school-based swimming programme. It explained urbanisation as a background influence on drowning in the last few decades before any deliberate intervention was promoted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)A69
JournalInjury Prevention
Volume18
Issue numberSuppl 1
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2012

Fingerprint

Urbanization
Taiwan
Local Government
Public Health

Cite this

Association between swimming lessons, urbanisation, and drowning in Taiwan. / KAo, W; Guttmacher, S; Yaffee, R.

In: Injury Prevention, Vol. 18, No. Suppl 1, 01.10.2012, p. A69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

KAo, W, Guttmacher, S & Yaffee, R 2012, 'Association between swimming lessons, urbanisation, and drowning in Taiwan', Injury Prevention, vol. 18, no. Suppl 1, pp. A69.
KAo, W ; Guttmacher, S ; Yaffee, R. / Association between swimming lessons, urbanisation, and drowning in Taiwan. In: Injury Prevention. 2012 ; Vol. 18, No. Suppl 1. pp. A69.
@article{dbf04634b38d4356b4e75b1f8fe8ecbc,
title = "Association between swimming lessons, urbanisation, and drowning in Taiwan",
abstract = "Background Unintentional drowning remains a leading cause of injury-related death, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In 2004, approximately 388 000 people died from drowning, of which 96{\%} occurred in LMIC. In 2001, the Taipei city government launched a school-based swimming programme aimed to reduce drowning. An evaluation of the impact of the swimming programme provides a better understanding to further prevent this global public health burden. Research Objectives 1. to examine the impact of a comprehensive school-based swimming programme on drowning; 2. to explore the association between urbanisation and drowning. Methods (1) Difference in differences (DID) is used to examine the impact of swimming programme on drowning; (2) time-series panel approach is used to assess the association between urbanisation and drowning mortality among 23 jurisdictions from 1980 to 2001. Results Swimming education was associated with a faster decline in drowning among policy-intervened groups. A ‘cross-over’ change, of which a policy-targeted group declined faster (from 6.7 to 1.7/100 000) and becomes lower in drowning compared to a non-intervened group (from 5.7 to 3.7/100 000, p value 0.023). Urbanisation was associated with the decline of drowning after controlling for medical services and household disposable income (p value=0.03 in fixed effect, multivariate regression model). Medical service was not associated with the drowning decline in Taiwan. Significance/Contribution to the Field This study provides empirical evidence supporting a protective effect of a school-based swimming programme. It explained urbanisation as a background influence on drowning in the last few decades before any deliberate intervention was promoted.",
author = "W KAo and S Guttmacher and R Yaffee",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
pages = "A69",
journal = "Injury Prevention",
issn = "1353-8047",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "Suppl 1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association between swimming lessons, urbanisation, and drowning in Taiwan

AU - KAo, W

AU - Guttmacher, S

AU - Yaffee, R

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - Background Unintentional drowning remains a leading cause of injury-related death, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In 2004, approximately 388 000 people died from drowning, of which 96% occurred in LMIC. In 2001, the Taipei city government launched a school-based swimming programme aimed to reduce drowning. An evaluation of the impact of the swimming programme provides a better understanding to further prevent this global public health burden. Research Objectives 1. to examine the impact of a comprehensive school-based swimming programme on drowning; 2. to explore the association between urbanisation and drowning. Methods (1) Difference in differences (DID) is used to examine the impact of swimming programme on drowning; (2) time-series panel approach is used to assess the association between urbanisation and drowning mortality among 23 jurisdictions from 1980 to 2001. Results Swimming education was associated with a faster decline in drowning among policy-intervened groups. A ‘cross-over’ change, of which a policy-targeted group declined faster (from 6.7 to 1.7/100 000) and becomes lower in drowning compared to a non-intervened group (from 5.7 to 3.7/100 000, p value 0.023). Urbanisation was associated with the decline of drowning after controlling for medical services and household disposable income (p value=0.03 in fixed effect, multivariate regression model). Medical service was not associated with the drowning decline in Taiwan. Significance/Contribution to the Field This study provides empirical evidence supporting a protective effect of a school-based swimming programme. It explained urbanisation as a background influence on drowning in the last few decades before any deliberate intervention was promoted.

AB - Background Unintentional drowning remains a leading cause of injury-related death, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In 2004, approximately 388 000 people died from drowning, of which 96% occurred in LMIC. In 2001, the Taipei city government launched a school-based swimming programme aimed to reduce drowning. An evaluation of the impact of the swimming programme provides a better understanding to further prevent this global public health burden. Research Objectives 1. to examine the impact of a comprehensive school-based swimming programme on drowning; 2. to explore the association between urbanisation and drowning. Methods (1) Difference in differences (DID) is used to examine the impact of swimming programme on drowning; (2) time-series panel approach is used to assess the association between urbanisation and drowning mortality among 23 jurisdictions from 1980 to 2001. Results Swimming education was associated with a faster decline in drowning among policy-intervened groups. A ‘cross-over’ change, of which a policy-targeted group declined faster (from 6.7 to 1.7/100 000) and becomes lower in drowning compared to a non-intervened group (from 5.7 to 3.7/100 000, p value 0.023). Urbanisation was associated with the decline of drowning after controlling for medical services and household disposable income (p value=0.03 in fixed effect, multivariate regression model). Medical service was not associated with the drowning decline in Taiwan. Significance/Contribution to the Field This study provides empirical evidence supporting a protective effect of a school-based swimming programme. It explained urbanisation as a background influence on drowning in the last few decades before any deliberate intervention was promoted.

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - A69

JO - Injury Prevention

JF - Injury Prevention

SN - 1353-8047

IS - Suppl 1

ER -