Assessment of the viral safety of antivenoms fractionated from equine plasma

Thierry Burnouf, Elwyn Griffiths, Ana Padilla, Salwa Seddik, Marco Antonio Stephano, José María Gutiérrez

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

49 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Antivenoms are preparations of intact or fragmented (F(ab′) 2 or Fab) immunoglobulin G (IgG) used in human medicine to treat the severe envenomings resulting from the bites and stings of various animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, or marine animals, or from the contact with poisonous plants. They are obtained by fractionating plasma collected from immunized horses or, less frequently, sheep. Manufacturing processes usually include pepsin digestion at acid pH, papain digestion, ammonium sulphate precipitation, caprylic acid precipitation, heat coagulation and/or chromatography. Most production processes do not have deliberately introduced viral inactivation or removal treatments, but antivenoms have never been found to transmit viruses to humans. Nevertheless, the recent examples of zoonotic diseases highlight the need to perform a careful assessment of the viral safety of antivenoms. This paper reviews the characteristics of equine viruses of antivenoms and discusses the potential of some manufacturing steps to avoid risks of viral contamination. Analysis of production parameters indicate that acid pH treatments and caprylic acid precipitations, which have been validated for the manufacture of some human IgG products, appear to provide the best potential for viral inactivation of antivenoms. As many manufacturers of antivenoms located in developing countries lack the resources to conduct formal viral validation studies, it is hoped that this review will help in the scientific understanding of the viral safety factors of antivenoms, in the controlled implementation of the manufacturing steps with expected impact on viral safety, and in the overall reinforcement of good manufacturing practices of these essential therapeutic products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-128
Number of pages14
JournalBiologicals
Volume32
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Antivenins
Horses
Plasmas
Safety
Acids
Viruses
Virus Inactivation
Animals
Papain
Digestion
Safety factor
Immunoglobulin G
Toxic Plants
Chromatography
Coagulation
Developing countries
Scorpions
Medicine
Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
Spiders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Burnouf, T., Griffiths, E., Padilla, A., Seddik, S., Stephano, M. A., & Gutiérrez, J. M. (2004). Assessment of the viral safety of antivenoms fractionated from equine plasma. Biologicals, 32(3), 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2004.07.001

Assessment of the viral safety of antivenoms fractionated from equine plasma. / Burnouf, Thierry; Griffiths, Elwyn; Padilla, Ana; Seddik, Salwa; Stephano, Marco Antonio; Gutiérrez, José María.

In: Biologicals, Vol. 32, No. 3, 09.2004, p. 115-128.

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

Burnouf, T, Griffiths, E, Padilla, A, Seddik, S, Stephano, MA & Gutiérrez, JM 2004, 'Assessment of the viral safety of antivenoms fractionated from equine plasma', Biologicals, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2004.07.001
Burnouf, Thierry ; Griffiths, Elwyn ; Padilla, Ana ; Seddik, Salwa ; Stephano, Marco Antonio ; Gutiérrez, José María. / Assessment of the viral safety of antivenoms fractionated from equine plasma. In: Biologicals. 2004 ; Vol. 32, No. 3. pp. 115-128.
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