Anti-melanoma activity of Bupleurum chinense, Bupleurum kaoi and nanoparticle formulation of their major bioactive compound saikosaponin-d

Stephen Chu Sung Hu, I-Ta Lee, Ming Hong Yen, Chun Ching Lin, Chiang Wen Lee, Feng Lin Yen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance Bupleurum chinense is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb which has been used to treat various inflammatory and infectious diseases, while Bupleurum kaoi is an endemic plant in Taiwan. We determined whether B. chinense and B. kaoi and their biologically active saikosaponin compounds possess anti-melanoma activity. In addition, we developed a novel saikosaponin-d nanoparticle system to improve its solubility, and evaluated its antiproliferative effects and molecular mechanisms in melanoma cells. Materials and methods Ethanolic extracts from B. chinense and B. kaoi were prepared, and their saikosaponin contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Human A375.S2 melanoma cells were cultured, and cell viability determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by determination of mitochondrial membrane potential, and signal transduction pathways investigated by Western blotting. Results Ethanolic extracts from B. kaoi showed more potent antiproliferative effect on human A375.S2 melanoma cells compared to B. chinense. The saikosaponin-a, -c and -d contents were higher in B. kaoi compared to B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d was the most potent compound in terms of anti-melanoma activity, and saikosaponin-d nanoparticles exhibited increased water solubility due to lowered particle size, amorphous transformation and intermolecular hydrogen bond formation with the excipient. Furthermore, saikosaponin-d nanoparticles showed enhanced antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells, and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The anti-melanoma activity was mediated by phosphorylation of JNK and p38, phosphorylation of p53, increased level of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase 9. Conclusions B. kaoi contains higher saikosaponin content and shows greater anti-melanoma activity than B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles have improved solubility, and may have potential use in the future as a form of treatment for melanoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)432-442
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume179
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 17 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bupleurum
Nanoparticles
Melanoma
Solubility
Particle Size
Phosphorylation
saikosaponin
Apoptosis
Caspase 9
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
Excipients
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Medicinal Plants
Cytochromes c
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Taiwan
Communicable Diseases
Hydrogen
Cultured Cells

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Bupleurum chinense
  • Bupleurum kaoi
  • Melanoma
  • Nanoparticle
  • Saikosaponin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery

Cite this

Anti-melanoma activity of Bupleurum chinense, Bupleurum kaoi and nanoparticle formulation of their major bioactive compound saikosaponin-d. / Hu, Stephen Chu Sung; Lee, I-Ta; Yen, Ming Hong; Lin, Chun Ching; Lee, Chiang Wen; Yen, Feng Lin.

In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 179, 17.02.2016, p. 432-442.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hu, Stephen Chu Sung ; Lee, I-Ta ; Yen, Ming Hong ; Lin, Chun Ching ; Lee, Chiang Wen ; Yen, Feng Lin. / Anti-melanoma activity of Bupleurum chinense, Bupleurum kaoi and nanoparticle formulation of their major bioactive compound saikosaponin-d. In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016 ; Vol. 179. pp. 432-442.
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abstract = "Ethnopharmacological relevance Bupleurum chinense is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb which has been used to treat various inflammatory and infectious diseases, while Bupleurum kaoi is an endemic plant in Taiwan. We determined whether B. chinense and B. kaoi and their biologically active saikosaponin compounds possess anti-melanoma activity. In addition, we developed a novel saikosaponin-d nanoparticle system to improve its solubility, and evaluated its antiproliferative effects and molecular mechanisms in melanoma cells. Materials and methods Ethanolic extracts from B. chinense and B. kaoi were prepared, and their saikosaponin contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Human A375.S2 melanoma cells were cultured, and cell viability determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by determination of mitochondrial membrane potential, and signal transduction pathways investigated by Western blotting. Results Ethanolic extracts from B. kaoi showed more potent antiproliferative effect on human A375.S2 melanoma cells compared to B. chinense. The saikosaponin-a, -c and -d contents were higher in B. kaoi compared to B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d was the most potent compound in terms of anti-melanoma activity, and saikosaponin-d nanoparticles exhibited increased water solubility due to lowered particle size, amorphous transformation and intermolecular hydrogen bond formation with the excipient. Furthermore, saikosaponin-d nanoparticles showed enhanced antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells, and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The anti-melanoma activity was mediated by phosphorylation of JNK and p38, phosphorylation of p53, increased level of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase 9. Conclusions B. kaoi contains higher saikosaponin content and shows greater anti-melanoma activity than B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles have improved solubility, and may have potential use in the future as a form of treatment for melanoma.",
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AU - Lee, I-Ta

AU - Yen, Ming Hong

AU - Lin, Chun Ching

AU - Lee, Chiang Wen

AU - Yen, Feng Lin

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N2 - Ethnopharmacological relevance Bupleurum chinense is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb which has been used to treat various inflammatory and infectious diseases, while Bupleurum kaoi is an endemic plant in Taiwan. We determined whether B. chinense and B. kaoi and their biologically active saikosaponin compounds possess anti-melanoma activity. In addition, we developed a novel saikosaponin-d nanoparticle system to improve its solubility, and evaluated its antiproliferative effects and molecular mechanisms in melanoma cells. Materials and methods Ethanolic extracts from B. chinense and B. kaoi were prepared, and their saikosaponin contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Human A375.S2 melanoma cells were cultured, and cell viability determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by determination of mitochondrial membrane potential, and signal transduction pathways investigated by Western blotting. Results Ethanolic extracts from B. kaoi showed more potent antiproliferative effect on human A375.S2 melanoma cells compared to B. chinense. The saikosaponin-a, -c and -d contents were higher in B. kaoi compared to B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d was the most potent compound in terms of anti-melanoma activity, and saikosaponin-d nanoparticles exhibited increased water solubility due to lowered particle size, amorphous transformation and intermolecular hydrogen bond formation with the excipient. Furthermore, saikosaponin-d nanoparticles showed enhanced antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells, and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The anti-melanoma activity was mediated by phosphorylation of JNK and p38, phosphorylation of p53, increased level of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase 9. Conclusions B. kaoi contains higher saikosaponin content and shows greater anti-melanoma activity than B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles have improved solubility, and may have potential use in the future as a form of treatment for melanoma.

AB - Ethnopharmacological relevance Bupleurum chinense is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb which has been used to treat various inflammatory and infectious diseases, while Bupleurum kaoi is an endemic plant in Taiwan. We determined whether B. chinense and B. kaoi and their biologically active saikosaponin compounds possess anti-melanoma activity. In addition, we developed a novel saikosaponin-d nanoparticle system to improve its solubility, and evaluated its antiproliferative effects and molecular mechanisms in melanoma cells. Materials and methods Ethanolic extracts from B. chinense and B. kaoi were prepared, and their saikosaponin contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Human A375.S2 melanoma cells were cultured, and cell viability determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by determination of mitochondrial membrane potential, and signal transduction pathways investigated by Western blotting. Results Ethanolic extracts from B. kaoi showed more potent antiproliferative effect on human A375.S2 melanoma cells compared to B. chinense. The saikosaponin-a, -c and -d contents were higher in B. kaoi compared to B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d was the most potent compound in terms of anti-melanoma activity, and saikosaponin-d nanoparticles exhibited increased water solubility due to lowered particle size, amorphous transformation and intermolecular hydrogen bond formation with the excipient. Furthermore, saikosaponin-d nanoparticles showed enhanced antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells, and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The anti-melanoma activity was mediated by phosphorylation of JNK and p38, phosphorylation of p53, increased level of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase 9. Conclusions B. kaoi contains higher saikosaponin content and shows greater anti-melanoma activity than B. chinense. Saikosaponin-d nanoparticles have improved solubility, and may have potential use in the future as a form of treatment for melanoma.

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