Both vasculature and myocardium in the heart are excessively damaged following myocardial infarction (MI), hence therapeutic strategies for treating MI hearts should concurrently aim for true cardiac repair by introducing new cardiomyocytes to replace lost or injured ones. Of them, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have long been considered a promising candidate for cell-based therapy due to their unspecialized, proliferative differentiation potential to specific cell lineage and, most importantly, their capacity of secreting beneficial paracrine factors which further promote neovascularization, angiogenesis, and cell survival. As a consequence, the differentiated MSCs could multiply and replace the damaged tissues to and turn into tissue-or organ-specific cells with specialized functions. These cells are also known to release potent anti-fibrotic factors including matrix metalloproteinases, which inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts, thereby attenuating fibrosis. To achieve the highest possible therapeutic efficacy of stem cells, the other interventions, including hydrogels, electrical stimulations, or platelet-derived biomaterials, have been supplemented, which have resulted in a narrow to broad range of outcomes. Therefore, this article comprehensively analyzed the progress made in stem cells and combinatorial therapies to rescue infarcted myocardium.
- Cardiac regeneration
- Myocardial infarction
- Platelet-derived biomaterials
- Stem cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas