An operando X-ray diffraction study of chloroaluminate anion-graphite intercalation in aluminum batteries

Chun Jern Pan, Chunze Yuan, Guanzhou Zhu, Qian Zhang, Chen Jui Huang, Meng Chang Lin, Michael Angell, Bing Joe Hwang, Payam Kaghazchi, Hongjie Dai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We investigated rechargeable aluminum (Al) batteries composed of an Al negative electrode, a graphite positive electrode, and an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte at temperatures down to −40 °C. The reversible battery discharge capacity at low temperatures could be superior to that at room temperature. In situ/operando electrochemical and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments combined with theoretical modeling revealed stable AlCl4 /graphite intercalation up to stage 3 at low temperatures, whereas intercalation was reversible up to stage 4 at room temperature (RT). The higher-degree anion/graphite intercalation at low temperatures affords rechargeable Al battery with higher discharge voltage (up to 2.5 V, a record for Al battery) and energy density. A remarkable cycle life of >20,000 cycles at a rate of 6C (10 minutes charge time) was achievable for Al battery operating at low temperatures, corresponding to a >50-year battery life if charged/discharged once daily.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5670-5675
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume115
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 29 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Aluminum batteries
  • Energy storage
  • Ionic liquids
  • Low temperature
  • Operando X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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