Background and Objectives: Gouty arthritis is an acute inflammatory response caused by the precipitation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints. The triggering of MSU leads to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, which in turn lead to the formation of macromolecular complexes, referred to as inflammasomes. Thorough characterization of the NLRP3 inflammasome can be used as an indicator of an immune response against harmful stimuli. Cardamonin is a chalcone, mainly found in the seeds of Alpinia katsumadai, and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. How-ever, the mechanism by which cardamonin treatment alleviates gouty arthritis has yet to be fully elucidated. Materials and Methods: In vitro or in vivo models were used to study whether carda-monimn inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation or suppressed gouty inflammation. Results: In the current study, we determined that most NLRP3 was released passively after MSU stimulation, and this release of NLRP3 promoted caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Cardamonin was shown to decrease both the activity of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β in J774A.1 macrophage cells subjected to MSU stimulation. Cardamonin was also shown to attenuate the production of COX-2 in MSU-stimulated J774A.1 macrophage cells. Finally, cardamonin reduced the thickness of the syn-ovial lining and the infiltration of gouty arthritis in a rat model. Conclusions: Overall, cardamonin significantly attenuated IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activity, and COX-2 production stimulated by MSU. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of cardamonin treatment for gouty arthritis.
- Gouty arthritis
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