Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis

Shin Yu Tsai, Pei Chin Chung, Eddy E. Owaga, I. Jong Tsai, Pei Yuan Wang, Jeng I. Tsai, Tien Shun Yeh, Rong-Hong Hsieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. α- mangostin (α-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of α-MG on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial functionality and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed on either AIM 93-M control diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet supplemented with 25 mg/day mangosteen pericarp extract (MGE) for 11 weeks. Thereafter, the following were determined: body weight change, plasma free fatty acids, liver triglyceride content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase GRd; catalase, CAT) and mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. In the in vitro study, primary liver cells were treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate: oleate acid = 2:0.25) to induce steatosis. Thereafter, the effects of α-MG (10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM) on total and mitochondria ROS (tROS, mitoROS), mitochondria bioenergetic functions, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis were examined in the FFA-treated primary liver cells. Results: The MGE group showed significantly decreased plasma free fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides (TG) and thiorbarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels; increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT); and enhanced NADH-cytochrome c reductase (NCCR) and succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCCR) activities in the liver tissue compared with HFD group. In the in vitro study, α-MG significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR), decreased tROS (total ROS) and mitoROS (mitochondrial ROS) levels ; reduced Ca2+ and cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria, and reduced caspases 9 and 3 activities compared with control group. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate α-MG attenuated hepatic steatosis in high fat-diet fed rats potentially through enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity and improved mitochondrial functions as well as suppressed apoptosis of hepatocytes. The findings of study represent a novel nutritional approach on the use of α-MG in the prevention and management of NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalNutrition and Metabolism
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2016

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Garcinia mangostana
High Fat Diet
Mitochondria
Apoptosis
Liver
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Antioxidants
Triglycerides
Enzymes
Succinate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase
NADH Dehydrogenase
Body Weight Changes
Acids
mangostin
Caspase 9
Glutathione Reductase
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
Palmitates
Fatty Liver
Oleic Acid

Keywords

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Fat infiltration
  • Mitochondria dysfunction
  • Mitochondrial pathway apoptosis
  • α-mangostin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis. / Tsai, Shin Yu; Chung, Pei Chin; Owaga, Eddy E.; Tsai, I. Jong; Wang, Pei Yuan; Tsai, Jeng I.; Yeh, Tien Shun; Hsieh, Rong-Hong.

In: Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 13, No. 1, 01.12.2016, p. 1-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tsai, Shin Yu ; Chung, Pei Chin ; Owaga, Eddy E. ; Tsai, I. Jong ; Wang, Pei Yuan ; Tsai, Jeng I. ; Yeh, Tien Shun ; Hsieh, Rong-Hong. / Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis. In: Nutrition and Metabolism. 2016 ; Vol. 13, No. 1. pp. 1-10.
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abstract = "Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. α- mangostin (α-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of α-MG on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial functionality and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed on either AIM 93-M control diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet supplemented with 25 mg/day mangosteen pericarp extract (MGE) for 11 weeks. Thereafter, the following were determined: body weight change, plasma free fatty acids, liver triglyceride content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase GRd; catalase, CAT) and mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. In the in vitro study, primary liver cells were treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate: oleate acid = 2:0.25) to induce steatosis. Thereafter, the effects of α-MG (10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM) on total and mitochondria ROS (tROS, mitoROS), mitochondria bioenergetic functions, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis were examined in the FFA-treated primary liver cells. Results: The MGE group showed significantly decreased plasma free fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides (TG) and thiorbarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels; increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT); and enhanced NADH-cytochrome c reductase (NCCR) and succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCCR) activities in the liver tissue compared with HFD group. In the in vitro study, α-MG significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR), decreased tROS (total ROS) and mitoROS (mitochondrial ROS) levels ; reduced Ca2+ and cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria, and reduced caspases 9 and 3 activities compared with control group. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate α-MG attenuated hepatic steatosis in high fat-diet fed rats potentially through enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity and improved mitochondrial functions as well as suppressed apoptosis of hepatocytes. The findings of study represent a novel nutritional approach on the use of α-MG in the prevention and management of NAFLD.",
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author = "Tsai, {Shin Yu} and Chung, {Pei Chin} and Owaga, {Eddy E.} and Tsai, {I. Jong} and Wang, {Pei Yuan} and Tsai, {Jeng I.} and Yeh, {Tien Shun} and Rong-Hong Hsieh",
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T1 - Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis

AU - Tsai, Shin Yu

AU - Chung, Pei Chin

AU - Owaga, Eddy E.

AU - Tsai, I. Jong

AU - Wang, Pei Yuan

AU - Tsai, Jeng I.

AU - Yeh, Tien Shun

AU - Hsieh, Rong-Hong

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. α- mangostin (α-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of α-MG on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial functionality and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed on either AIM 93-M control diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet supplemented with 25 mg/day mangosteen pericarp extract (MGE) for 11 weeks. Thereafter, the following were determined: body weight change, plasma free fatty acids, liver triglyceride content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase GRd; catalase, CAT) and mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. In the in vitro study, primary liver cells were treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate: oleate acid = 2:0.25) to induce steatosis. Thereafter, the effects of α-MG (10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM) on total and mitochondria ROS (tROS, mitoROS), mitochondria bioenergetic functions, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis were examined in the FFA-treated primary liver cells. Results: The MGE group showed significantly decreased plasma free fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides (TG) and thiorbarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels; increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT); and enhanced NADH-cytochrome c reductase (NCCR) and succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCCR) activities in the liver tissue compared with HFD group. In the in vitro study, α-MG significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR), decreased tROS (total ROS) and mitoROS (mitochondrial ROS) levels ; reduced Ca2+ and cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria, and reduced caspases 9 and 3 activities compared with control group. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate α-MG attenuated hepatic steatosis in high fat-diet fed rats potentially through enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity and improved mitochondrial functions as well as suppressed apoptosis of hepatocytes. The findings of study represent a novel nutritional approach on the use of α-MG in the prevention and management of NAFLD.

AB - Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. α- mangostin (α-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of α-MG on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial functionality and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed on either AIM 93-M control diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet supplemented with 25 mg/day mangosteen pericarp extract (MGE) for 11 weeks. Thereafter, the following were determined: body weight change, plasma free fatty acids, liver triglyceride content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase GRd; catalase, CAT) and mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. In the in vitro study, primary liver cells were treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate: oleate acid = 2:0.25) to induce steatosis. Thereafter, the effects of α-MG (10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM) on total and mitochondria ROS (tROS, mitoROS), mitochondria bioenergetic functions, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis were examined in the FFA-treated primary liver cells. Results: The MGE group showed significantly decreased plasma free fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides (TG) and thiorbarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels; increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT); and enhanced NADH-cytochrome c reductase (NCCR) and succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCCR) activities in the liver tissue compared with HFD group. In the in vitro study, α-MG significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR), decreased tROS (total ROS) and mitoROS (mitochondrial ROS) levels ; reduced Ca2+ and cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria, and reduced caspases 9 and 3 activities compared with control group. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate α-MG attenuated hepatic steatosis in high fat-diet fed rats potentially through enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity and improved mitochondrial functions as well as suppressed apoptosis of hepatocytes. The findings of study represent a novel nutritional approach on the use of α-MG in the prevention and management of NAFLD.

KW - Antioxidant enzymes

KW - Fat infiltration

KW - Mitochondria dysfunction

KW - Mitochondrial pathway apoptosis

KW - α-mangostin

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