Adult NTRK-rearranged spindle cell neoplasms of the viscera: with an emphasis on rare locations and heterologous elements

Jen Wei Tsai, Jen Chieh Lee, Tsung Han Hsieh, Shih Chiang Huang, Pei Hang Lee, Ting-Ting Liu, Yu Chien Kao, Ching Di Chang, Te Fu Weng, Chien Feng Li, Jung Chia Lin, Cher Wei Liang, Yu Li Su, Ian Yi Feng Chang, Yu Ting Wang, Nien Yi Chang, Shih Chen Yu, Jui Chu Wang, Hsuan Ying Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

NTRK-rearranged mesenchymal neoplasms mostly affect the soft tissues of pediatric patients. Given the responsiveness to selective NTRK inhibitors, it remains critical to identify those ultra-rare cases occurring in the viscera of adults. In five females and two males aged 18–53 years, we characterized visceral mesenchymal tumors harboring TPM3-NTRK1 [uterine cervix (N = 2), pleura, prostate], LMNA-NTRK1 (lung), SQSTM1-NTRK3 (heart), and NTRK3 rearrangement with unknown fusion partner (colon/mesocolon) with RNA sequencing, FISH, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The tumors exhibited spindled to ovoid/epithelioid or pleomorphic cells, often arranged in fascicles, and were low-to-intermediate-grade and high-grade in three and four cases, respectively. Keloid-like stromal collagen and perivascular hyalinization was noted in five. Adenosarcoma-like appearances were observed in two, manifesting frond-like protrusions in one cervical tumor and phyllodes-like architecture in the prostatic tumor. Abrupt high-grade transformation into pleomorphic liposarcoma was found in another cervical tumor, while the pleural tumor contained intermixed rhabdomyoblasts. Pan-TRK immunostaining was positive in all cases. All cases expressed CD34, while five were S100-positive. CDKN2A homozygous deletion with concomitant p16 loss occurred in 4/7. Whole-exome sequencing identified TP53 mutation (c.672+2T>C, involving a splice site, with concomitant protein loss) in a cervical sarcoma, limited to its heterologous liposarcomatous component. At least moderate pan-TRK immunoreactivity was present in varying proportions of potential pathologic mimics, with BCOR-positive sarcoma (56%, 5/9), undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (50%, 3/6), and spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (33%, 2/6) being among the most frequent. This underscored the unsatisfactory specificity of pan-TRK immunohistochemistry and warranted molecular confirmation in the diagnosis of adult NTRK-rearranged visceral mesenchymal neoplasms. The current report highlights the ever-expanding clinicopathologic and genetic spectrum of this entity by describing the unprecedented cardiac and pleural locations and heterologous differentiation, as well as the second NTRK-rearranged “prostatic stromal sarcoma,” while substantiating CDKN2A deletion as a frequent occurrence.

Original languageEnglish
JournalModern Pathology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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