Activated PAR-2 regulates pancreatic cancer progression through ILK/HIF-α-induced TGF-α expression and MEK/VEGF-a-mediated angiogenesis

Li Hsun Chang, Shiow Lin Pan, Chin Yu Lai, An Chi Tsai, Che Ming Teng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tissue factor initiates the process of thrombosis and activates cell signaling through protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological role of PAR-2 signaling in pancreatic cancer. We first demonstrated that activated PAR-2 up-regulated the protein expression of both hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α, resulting in enhanced transcription of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). Down-regulation of HIFs-α by siRNA or YC-1, an HIF inhibitor, resulted in depleted levels of TGF-α protein. Furthermore, PAR-2, through integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, including the p-AKT, promoted HIF protein expression. Diminishing ILK by siRNA decreased the levels of PAR-2-induced p-AKT, HIFs-α, and TGF-α; our results suggest that ILK is involved in the PAR-2-mediated TGF-α via an HIF-α-dependent pathway. Furthermore, the culture medium from PAR-2-treated pancreatic cancer cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation, which was blocked by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059. We also found that activated PAR-2 enhanced tumor angiogenesis through the release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) from cancer cells, independent of the ILK/HIFs-α pathways. Consistent with microarray analysis, activated PAR-2 induced TGF-A and VEGF-A gene expression. In conclusion, the activation of PAR-2 signaling induced human pancreatic cancer progression through the induction of TGF-α expression by ILK/HIFs-α, as well as through MEK/VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis, and it plays a role in the interaction between cancer progression and cancer-related thrombosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-575
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Volume183
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013

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PAR-2 Receptor
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
Transforming Growth Factors
Pancreatic Neoplasms
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Small Interfering RNA
Neoplasms
Thrombosis
integrin-linked kinase
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
Proteins
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Thromboplastin
Microarray Analysis
Culture Media
Down-Regulation
Cell Proliferation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Activated PAR-2 regulates pancreatic cancer progression through ILK/HIF-α-induced TGF-α expression and MEK/VEGF-a-mediated angiogenesis. / Chang, Li Hsun; Pan, Shiow Lin; Lai, Chin Yu; Tsai, An Chi; Teng, Che Ming.

In: American Journal of Pathology, Vol. 183, No. 2, 08.2013, p. 566-575.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Tissue factor initiates the process of thrombosis and activates cell signaling through protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological role of PAR-2 signaling in pancreatic cancer. We first demonstrated that activated PAR-2 up-regulated the protein expression of both hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α, resulting in enhanced transcription of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). Down-regulation of HIFs-α by siRNA or YC-1, an HIF inhibitor, resulted in depleted levels of TGF-α protein. Furthermore, PAR-2, through integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, including the p-AKT, promoted HIF protein expression. Diminishing ILK by siRNA decreased the levels of PAR-2-induced p-AKT, HIFs-α, and TGF-α; our results suggest that ILK is involved in the PAR-2-mediated TGF-α via an HIF-α-dependent pathway. Furthermore, the culture medium from PAR-2-treated pancreatic cancer cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation, which was blocked by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059. We also found that activated PAR-2 enhanced tumor angiogenesis through the release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) from cancer cells, independent of the ILK/HIFs-α pathways. Consistent with microarray analysis, activated PAR-2 induced TGF-A and VEGF-A gene expression. In conclusion, the activation of PAR-2 signaling induced human pancreatic cancer progression through the induction of TGF-α expression by ILK/HIFs-α, as well as through MEK/VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis, and it plays a role in the interaction between cancer progression and cancer-related thrombosis.",
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AB - Tissue factor initiates the process of thrombosis and activates cell signaling through protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological role of PAR-2 signaling in pancreatic cancer. We first demonstrated that activated PAR-2 up-regulated the protein expression of both hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α, resulting in enhanced transcription of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). Down-regulation of HIFs-α by siRNA or YC-1, an HIF inhibitor, resulted in depleted levels of TGF-α protein. Furthermore, PAR-2, through integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, including the p-AKT, promoted HIF protein expression. Diminishing ILK by siRNA decreased the levels of PAR-2-induced p-AKT, HIFs-α, and TGF-α; our results suggest that ILK is involved in the PAR-2-mediated TGF-α via an HIF-α-dependent pathway. Furthermore, the culture medium from PAR-2-treated pancreatic cancer cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation, which was blocked by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059. We also found that activated PAR-2 enhanced tumor angiogenesis through the release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) from cancer cells, independent of the ILK/HIFs-α pathways. Consistent with microarray analysis, activated PAR-2 induced TGF-A and VEGF-A gene expression. In conclusion, the activation of PAR-2 signaling induced human pancreatic cancer progression through the induction of TGF-α expression by ILK/HIFs-α, as well as through MEK/VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis, and it plays a role in the interaction between cancer progression and cancer-related thrombosis.

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