The twenty-first century is the era of knowledge economy; knowledge is more important than ever for any organization. Universities are also beginning to pay attention to knowledge management. The library is the treasure of human knowledge, and a university library is the heart of the university. When the university implements knowledge-management related activities, the university library should play a decisive role. This study utilizes the methodologies of literature review and questionnaires to survey the current status and attitudes of implementing knowledge-management related activities in Taiwan's academic libraries. The author sent out 175 questionnaires and there were 168 effective ones replied (the return rate is about 96%). The findings were presented from the university's and library's viewpoints, showing the current performance and future planning of the management of internal / external/ explicit / tacit knowledge, knowledge interchange, and the transformation of explicit to implicit knowledge. In addition, the difficulties and obstacles of implementing KM are also identified. The author anticipates the research results will help people realize the possibility of permitting the university library perform as a knowledge-management center, and help the library director and librarians of the university library understand their responsibility and new roles in this knowledge economy era.