A novel role of andrographolide, an NF-kappa B inhibitor, on inhibition of platelet activation: The pivotal mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic GMP

Wan-Jung Lu, Jie Jen Lee, Duen Suey Chou, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Tsorng Han Fong, George Hsiao, Joen Rong Sheu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Andrographolide is a novel NF-κB inhibitor from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of thrombotic diseases. However, no data are available concerning the effects of andrographolide in platelet activation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of andrographolide in preventing platelet activation. Andrographolide (25-75 μΜ) exhibited a more potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by relative Ca 2+ mobilization; thromboxane A 2 formation; and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt phosphorylation. Andrographolide markedly increased cyclic GMP, but not cyclic AMP levels. Andrographolide also stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, NO release, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, and the andrographolide-mediated stimulatory effect on VASP phosphorylation. Furthermore, a PI3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002) but not a PKC inhibitor (Ro318220) significantly diminished p38 MAPK phosphorylation; nevertheless, a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) and LY294002 diminished PKC activity stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide also reduced collagen-triggered hydroxyl radical (OH ) formation. In vivo studies revealed that andrographolide (22 and 55 μg/kg) is effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism and significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that andrographolide possesses a novel role of antiplatelet activity, which may involve the activation of the eNOS-NO/cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in the inhibition of the PI3 kinase/Akt-p38 MAPK and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, thereby leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1261-1273
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Molecular Medicine
Volume89
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011

Fingerprint

NF-kappa B
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Cyclic GMP
Platelet Activation
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Protein Kinase C
Phosphorylation
Collagen
Platelet Aggregation
2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
andrographolide
Andrographis
Protein C Inhibitor
Guanylate Cyclase
Thromboxanes
Type C Phospholipases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Pulmonary Embolism

Keywords

  • Andrographolide
  • cGMP
  • eNOS
  • p38 MAPK
  • Platelet activation
  • PLCγ2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

@article{f6a4e0fd9cde4e8a883f2f624a8bc55b,
title = "A novel role of andrographolide, an NF-kappa B inhibitor, on inhibition of platelet activation: The pivotal mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic GMP",
abstract = "Andrographolide is a novel NF-κB inhibitor from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of thrombotic diseases. However, no data are available concerning the effects of andrographolide in platelet activation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of andrographolide in preventing platelet activation. Andrographolide (25-75 μΜ) exhibited a more potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by relative Ca 2+ mobilization; thromboxane A 2 formation; and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt phosphorylation. Andrographolide markedly increased cyclic GMP, but not cyclic AMP levels. Andrographolide also stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, NO release, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, and the andrographolide-mediated stimulatory effect on VASP phosphorylation. Furthermore, a PI3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002) but not a PKC inhibitor (Ro318220) significantly diminished p38 MAPK phosphorylation; nevertheless, a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) and LY294002 diminished PKC activity stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide also reduced collagen-triggered hydroxyl radical (OH ⋯) formation. In vivo studies revealed that andrographolide (22 and 55 μg/kg) is effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism and significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that andrographolide possesses a novel role of antiplatelet activity, which may involve the activation of the eNOS-NO/cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in the inhibition of the PI3 kinase/Akt-p38 MAPK and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, thereby leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation.",
keywords = "Andrographolide, cGMP, eNOS, p38 MAPK, Platelet activation, PLCγ2",
author = "Wan-Jung Lu and Lee, {Jie Jen} and Chou, {Duen Suey} and Thanasekaran Jayakumar and Fong, {Tsorng Han} and George Hsiao and Sheu, {Joen Rong}",
year = "2011",
month = "12",
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T1 - A novel role of andrographolide, an NF-kappa B inhibitor, on inhibition of platelet activation

T2 - The pivotal mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic GMP

AU - Lu, Wan-Jung

AU - Lee, Jie Jen

AU - Chou, Duen Suey

AU - Jayakumar, Thanasekaran

AU - Fong, Tsorng Han

AU - Hsiao, George

AU - Sheu, Joen Rong

PY - 2011/12

Y1 - 2011/12

N2 - Andrographolide is a novel NF-κB inhibitor from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of thrombotic diseases. However, no data are available concerning the effects of andrographolide in platelet activation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of andrographolide in preventing platelet activation. Andrographolide (25-75 μΜ) exhibited a more potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by relative Ca 2+ mobilization; thromboxane A 2 formation; and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt phosphorylation. Andrographolide markedly increased cyclic GMP, but not cyclic AMP levels. Andrographolide also stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, NO release, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, and the andrographolide-mediated stimulatory effect on VASP phosphorylation. Furthermore, a PI3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002) but not a PKC inhibitor (Ro318220) significantly diminished p38 MAPK phosphorylation; nevertheless, a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) and LY294002 diminished PKC activity stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide also reduced collagen-triggered hydroxyl radical (OH ⋯) formation. In vivo studies revealed that andrographolide (22 and 55 μg/kg) is effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism and significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that andrographolide possesses a novel role of antiplatelet activity, which may involve the activation of the eNOS-NO/cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in the inhibition of the PI3 kinase/Akt-p38 MAPK and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, thereby leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation.

AB - Andrographolide is a novel NF-κB inhibitor from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of thrombotic diseases. However, no data are available concerning the effects of andrographolide in platelet activation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of andrographolide in preventing platelet activation. Andrographolide (25-75 μΜ) exhibited a more potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by relative Ca 2+ mobilization; thromboxane A 2 formation; and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt phosphorylation. Andrographolide markedly increased cyclic GMP, but not cyclic AMP levels. Andrographolide also stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, NO release, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, and the andrographolide-mediated stimulatory effect on VASP phosphorylation. Furthermore, a PI3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002) but not a PKC inhibitor (Ro318220) significantly diminished p38 MAPK phosphorylation; nevertheless, a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) and LY294002 diminished PKC activity stimulated by collagen. Andrographolide also reduced collagen-triggered hydroxyl radical (OH ⋯) formation. In vivo studies revealed that andrographolide (22 and 55 μg/kg) is effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism and significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that andrographolide possesses a novel role of antiplatelet activity, which may involve the activation of the eNOS-NO/cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in the inhibition of the PI3 kinase/Akt-p38 MAPK and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, thereby leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation.

KW - Andrographolide

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KW - eNOS

KW - p38 MAPK

KW - Platelet activation

KW - PLCγ2

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