Zac1, a zinc-finger protein that regulates apoptosis and cell cycle arrest 1, such as p53, can induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The transactivation and coactivation functions of Zac1 may occur at non-promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) sites in the presence of other PML-NB components, including ubiquitin-conjugating 9 (Ubc9). It is unclear whether post-translational modification of Zac1 by the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO plays a role in the coactivation functions of Zac1 for the regulation of the p21 gene. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the two SUMO-binding lysine residues of Zac1, K237 and K424, repress the transactivation activity of Zac1. Studies using a SUMO-1 C-terminal di-glycine motif mutant that is deficient in the ability to form covalent bonds with lysines, SUMO-1 (GA), and a dominant-negative Ubc9 construct (C93S) indicated that SUMO-1 might regulate Zac1 transactivation and coactivation via a non-covalent interaction. Unlike the wild-type Zac1, which induced apoptosis, the Zac1 (K237/424R) double mutant had the ability to induce autophagy. The functional role of p21 remains to be investigated. SUMO-1 selectively suppressed the induction of the p21 gene and protein by wild-type Zac1 but not by the Zac1 (K237/424R) double mutant. Moreover, wild-type Ubc9 but not Ubc9 (C93S) further potentiated the suppression of SUMO-1 in all Zac1-induced p21 promoter activities. Our data reveal that p21 may be an important factor for the prevention of Zac1-induced apoptosis without affecting autophagosome formation. This work indicates that Zac1 functions are regulated, at least in part, via non-covalent interactions with SUMO-1 for the induction of p21, which is important for the modulation of apoptosis.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Mar 2012|
- SUMO-interacting motif
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology