A genome-centric approach reveals a novel glycosyltransferase from the ga a07 strain of bacillus thuringiensis responsible for catalyzing 15-o-glycosylation of ganoderic acid a

Te Sheng Chang, Tzi Yuan Wang, Tzu Yu Hsueh, Yu Wen Lee, Hsin Mei Chuang, Wen Xuan Cai, Jiumn Yih Wu, Chien Min Chiang, Yu Wei Wu

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Strain GA A07 was identified as an intestinal Bacillus bacterium of zebrafish, which has high efficiency to biotransform the triterpenoid, ganoderic acid A (GAA), into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. To date, only two known enzymes (BsUGT398 and BsUGT489) of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 strain can biotransform GAA. It is thus worthwhile to identify the responsible genes of strain GA A07 by whole genome sequencing. A complete genome of strain GA A07 was successfully assembled. A phylogenomic analysis revealed the species of the GA A07 strain to be Bacillus thuringiensis. Forty glycosyltransferase (GT) family genes were identified from the complete genome, among which three genes (FQZ25_16345, FQZ25_19840, and FQZ25_19010) were closely related to BsUGT398 and BsUGT489. Two of the three candidate genes, FQZ25_16345 and FQZ25_19010, were successfully cloned and expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins, BtGT_16345 and BtGT_19010, were purified for a biotransformation activity assay. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic analysis further confirmed that only the purified BtGT_16345 had the key biotransformation activity of catalyzing GAA into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. The suitable conditions for this enzyme activity were pH 7.5, 10 mM of magnesium ions, and 30 C. In addition, BtGT_16345 showed glycosylation activity toward seven flavonoids (apigenein, quercetein, naringenein, resveratrol, genistein, daidzein, and 8-hydroxydaidzein) and two triterpenoids (GAA and antcin K). A kinetic study showed that the catalytic efficiency (kcat /KM ) of BtGT_16345 was not significantly different compared with either BsUGT398 or BsUGT489. In short, this study identified BtGT_16345 from B. thuringiensis GA A07 is the catalytic enzyme responsible for the 15-O-glycosylation of GAA and it was also regioselective toward triterpenoid substrates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5192
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2 2019



  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Biotransformation
  • Ganoderic acid
  • Glycosyltransferase
  • Nanopore sequencing
  • Whole genome sequencing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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