Crassocephalum rabens (Asteraceae) is a popular anti-inflammatory folk medicine and food supplement. We investigated the cancer chemopreventive bioactivity of C. rabens phytocompounds in vitro and in vivo using cell- and gene-based bioassays and a mouse B16 melanoma model. The bioactive glyceroglycolipid 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-sn- glycerol (dLGG) that was identified from C. rabens was found in vitro and in vivo to be a potent nitric oxide (NO) scavenger. dLGG treatment inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine macrophages and inhibited COX-2 gene transcription in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated B16 cells. In immunohistochemical studies, dLGG inhibited TPA-induced expression of COX-2 and nitration of proteins in mouse skin. dLGG could also significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 production in murine macrophages. Furthermore, dLGG prevented nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. Structure-activity relationship study by electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that the dilinolenoylglycerol moiety in dLGG is the essential structural feature preventing NF-κB·DNA complex formation. A dLGG-enriched extract from C. rabens (10 mg/kg) markedly suppressed B16 melanoma growth in C57BL/6J mice following i.p. administration, an effect comparable with that of cisplatin, a cancer chemotherapeutic drug. This study shows the detailed molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory and tumor-suppressive effects of a natural galactolipid.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research