A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide

I. C. Liu, S. F. Liao, W. C. Lee, C. Y. Kao, R. Jenkins, A. T A Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Suicide rates vary widely across nations and ethnic groups. This study aims to explore potential factors contributing to inter-ethnic differences in suicide rates.Method Study subjects came from a case-control psychological autopsy study conducted in Taiwan, including 116 consecutive suicides from two aboriginal groups and Taiwanese Han; 113 of them each matched with two living controls. Gender-, age- and method-specific suicide rates, population attributable fraction (PAF) of suicide for five major risk factors, help-seeking before suicide and emergency medical aid after suicide were compared between the three ethnic groups.Results One aboriginal group (the Atayal) had significantly higher adjusted rate ratios (RR) of suicide than the other aboriginal group (the Ami) [RR 0.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.12-0.34] and the Han (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.16-0.40). Such differences can be explained by higher PAFs of suicide for three major risk factors (substance dependence, PAF 47.6%, 95% CI 25.5-64.2; emotionally unstable personality disorder, PAF 52.7%, 95% CI 32.8-69.0; family history of suicidal behaviour, PAF 43.5%, 95% CI 23.2-60.2) in this group than in the other two groups. This higher suicide rate was substantially reduced from 68.2/100 000 per year to 9.1/100 000 per year, comparable with the other two groups, after stepwise removal of the effects of these three risk factors. Suicide rates by self-poisoning were also significantly higher in this group than in the other two groups.Conclusions Higher rates of specific risk factors and use of highly lethal pesticides for suicide contributed to the higher suicide rate in one ethnic group in Taiwan. These findings have implications for developing ethnicity-relevant suicide prevention strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1213-1221
Number of pages9
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume41
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Suicide
Incidence
Confidence Intervals
Ethnic Groups
Taiwan
Population
Personality Disorders
Pesticides
Poisoning
Substance-Related Disorders
Autopsy
Emergencies
Psychology

Keywords

  • Ethnicity
  • incidence
  • population attributable fraction
  • suicide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Applied Psychology

Cite this

Liu, I. C., Liao, S. F., Lee, W. C., Kao, C. Y., Jenkins, R., & Cheng, A. T. A. (2011). A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide. Psychological Medicine, 41(6), 1213-1221. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710001807

A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide. / Liu, I. C.; Liao, S. F.; Lee, W. C.; Kao, C. Y.; Jenkins, R.; Cheng, A. T A.

In: Psychological Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 6, 06.2011, p. 1213-1221.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liu, IC, Liao, SF, Lee, WC, Kao, CY, Jenkins, R & Cheng, ATA 2011, 'A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide', Psychological Medicine, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1213-1221. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710001807
Liu IC, Liao SF, Lee WC, Kao CY, Jenkins R, Cheng ATA. A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide. Psychological Medicine. 2011 Jun;41(6):1213-1221. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710001807
Liu, I. C. ; Liao, S. F. ; Lee, W. C. ; Kao, C. Y. ; Jenkins, R. ; Cheng, A. T A. / A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide. In: Psychological Medicine. 2011 ; Vol. 41, No. 6. pp. 1213-1221.
@article{85dd49a730a943ac8d1bf9ce393275d2,
title = "A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide",
abstract = "Background Suicide rates vary widely across nations and ethnic groups. This study aims to explore potential factors contributing to inter-ethnic differences in suicide rates.Method Study subjects came from a case-control psychological autopsy study conducted in Taiwan, including 116 consecutive suicides from two aboriginal groups and Taiwanese Han; 113 of them each matched with two living controls. Gender-, age- and method-specific suicide rates, population attributable fraction (PAF) of suicide for five major risk factors, help-seeking before suicide and emergency medical aid after suicide were compared between the three ethnic groups.Results One aboriginal group (the Atayal) had significantly higher adjusted rate ratios (RR) of suicide than the other aboriginal group (the Ami) [RR 0.20, 95{\%} confidence intervals (CI) 0.12-0.34] and the Han (RR 0.26, 95{\%} CI 0.16-0.40). Such differences can be explained by higher PAFs of suicide for three major risk factors (substance dependence, PAF 47.6{\%}, 95{\%} CI 25.5-64.2; emotionally unstable personality disorder, PAF 52.7{\%}, 95{\%} CI 32.8-69.0; family history of suicidal behaviour, PAF 43.5{\%}, 95{\%} CI 23.2-60.2) in this group than in the other two groups. This higher suicide rate was substantially reduced from 68.2/100 000 per year to 9.1/100 000 per year, comparable with the other two groups, after stepwise removal of the effects of these three risk factors. Suicide rates by self-poisoning were also significantly higher in this group than in the other two groups.Conclusions Higher rates of specific risk factors and use of highly lethal pesticides for suicide contributed to the higher suicide rate in one ethnic group in Taiwan. These findings have implications for developing ethnicity-relevant suicide prevention strategies.",
keywords = "Ethnicity, incidence, population attributable fraction, suicide",
author = "Liu, {I. C.} and Liao, {S. F.} and Lee, {W. C.} and Kao, {C. Y.} and R. Jenkins and Cheng, {A. T A}",
year = "2011",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1017/S0033291710001807",
language = "English",
volume = "41",
pages = "1213--1221",
journal = "Psychological Medicine",
issn = "0033-2917",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A cross-ethnic comparison on incidence of suicide

AU - Liu, I. C.

AU - Liao, S. F.

AU - Lee, W. C.

AU - Kao, C. Y.

AU - Jenkins, R.

AU - Cheng, A. T A

PY - 2011/6

Y1 - 2011/6

N2 - Background Suicide rates vary widely across nations and ethnic groups. This study aims to explore potential factors contributing to inter-ethnic differences in suicide rates.Method Study subjects came from a case-control psychological autopsy study conducted in Taiwan, including 116 consecutive suicides from two aboriginal groups and Taiwanese Han; 113 of them each matched with two living controls. Gender-, age- and method-specific suicide rates, population attributable fraction (PAF) of suicide for five major risk factors, help-seeking before suicide and emergency medical aid after suicide were compared between the three ethnic groups.Results One aboriginal group (the Atayal) had significantly higher adjusted rate ratios (RR) of suicide than the other aboriginal group (the Ami) [RR 0.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.12-0.34] and the Han (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.16-0.40). Such differences can be explained by higher PAFs of suicide for three major risk factors (substance dependence, PAF 47.6%, 95% CI 25.5-64.2; emotionally unstable personality disorder, PAF 52.7%, 95% CI 32.8-69.0; family history of suicidal behaviour, PAF 43.5%, 95% CI 23.2-60.2) in this group than in the other two groups. This higher suicide rate was substantially reduced from 68.2/100 000 per year to 9.1/100 000 per year, comparable with the other two groups, after stepwise removal of the effects of these three risk factors. Suicide rates by self-poisoning were also significantly higher in this group than in the other two groups.Conclusions Higher rates of specific risk factors and use of highly lethal pesticides for suicide contributed to the higher suicide rate in one ethnic group in Taiwan. These findings have implications for developing ethnicity-relevant suicide prevention strategies.

AB - Background Suicide rates vary widely across nations and ethnic groups. This study aims to explore potential factors contributing to inter-ethnic differences in suicide rates.Method Study subjects came from a case-control psychological autopsy study conducted in Taiwan, including 116 consecutive suicides from two aboriginal groups and Taiwanese Han; 113 of them each matched with two living controls. Gender-, age- and method-specific suicide rates, population attributable fraction (PAF) of suicide for five major risk factors, help-seeking before suicide and emergency medical aid after suicide were compared between the three ethnic groups.Results One aboriginal group (the Atayal) had significantly higher adjusted rate ratios (RR) of suicide than the other aboriginal group (the Ami) [RR 0.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.12-0.34] and the Han (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.16-0.40). Such differences can be explained by higher PAFs of suicide for three major risk factors (substance dependence, PAF 47.6%, 95% CI 25.5-64.2; emotionally unstable personality disorder, PAF 52.7%, 95% CI 32.8-69.0; family history of suicidal behaviour, PAF 43.5%, 95% CI 23.2-60.2) in this group than in the other two groups. This higher suicide rate was substantially reduced from 68.2/100 000 per year to 9.1/100 000 per year, comparable with the other two groups, after stepwise removal of the effects of these three risk factors. Suicide rates by self-poisoning were also significantly higher in this group than in the other two groups.Conclusions Higher rates of specific risk factors and use of highly lethal pesticides for suicide contributed to the higher suicide rate in one ethnic group in Taiwan. These findings have implications for developing ethnicity-relevant suicide prevention strategies.

KW - Ethnicity

KW - incidence

KW - population attributable fraction

KW - suicide

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79955989177&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79955989177&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291710001807

DO - 10.1017/S0033291710001807

M3 - Article

C2 - 20860868

AN - SCOPUS:79955989177

VL - 41

SP - 1213

EP - 1221

JO - Psychological Medicine

JF - Psychological Medicine

SN - 0033-2917

IS - 6

ER -