Background:Current practice guidelines recommend the use of nasal cannula as an alternative pre-oxygenation method for tracheal intubation. However, the efficacy of high-flow nasal oxygenation versus standard facemask oxygenation has not been fully evaluated.Methods:We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English-language studies published from January 1, 2000 to November 30, 2021. We included randomized controlled trials which compared high-flow nasal oxygenation and facemask oxygenation as the pre-oxygenation maneuver. Primary outcome was arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) after pre-oxygenation. Secondary outcomes were safe apnea time, arterial desaturation during intubation, lowest peripheral capillary oxygen saturation during intubation, and patient comfort score. Random-effects models and Mantel-Haenszel method were used for data synthesis.Results:A total of 16 randomized controlled trials and 1148 patients were included. High-flow nasal oxygenation achieved a higher PaO2compared with facemask, mean difference: 64.86mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.33-97.40, P<.0001). Safe apnea time was longer in high-flow nasal oxygenation, mean difference: 131.03seconds (95% CI: 59.39-202.66, P<.0001). There was no difference in the risk of peri-intubation desaturation or lowest peripheral capillary oxygen saturation between groups. Patient comfort score was higher in high-flow nasal oxygenation, mean difference: 1.00 (95% CI: 0.46-1.54, P=.0003).Conclusion:High-flow nasal oxygenation better enhanced PaO2and extended safe apnea time and is not inferior to facemask oxygenation in preventing desaturation during tracheal intubation. High-flow nasal oxygenation may be considered as an alternative method, especially for patients with a potential difficult airway.
- apneic oxygenation
- difficult airway
- high-flow nasal oxygenation
- transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange
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