A benzamide-linked small molecule HS-Cf inhibits TNF-α-induced interferon regulatory factor-1 in porcine chondrocytes

A potential disease-modifying drug for osteoarthritis therapeutics

Feng Cheng Liu, Hsu Shan Huang, Chuan Yueh Huang, Ro Yang, Deh Ming Chang, Jenn Haung Lai, Ling Jun Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Using tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-activated porcine chondrocytes as a screening tool, we aim to synthesize and identify small-molecule inhibitors preserving immunomodulatory effects as therapeutics for osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Chondrocytes were isolated from pig joints. A minilibrary of 300 benzamide-linked small molecules was established. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by Western blot and Griess reaction, respectively. Proteoglycan degradation in cartilage explants was determined by histochemistry analysis. The activation of transcription factors and protein kinases was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays or Western blots. Zymography and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to determine enzyme activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases, respectively. Results Bioassay screening of benzamide-linked small molecules revealed that 2-hydroxy-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] benzamide (HS-Cf) was a potent inhibitor of NO production and iNOS expression in TNF-α-stimulated porcine chondrocytes. HS-Cf suppressed TNF-α-induced activity of MMP-13 and expressions of several aggrecanases and prevented TNF-α-mediated reduction of collagen II. Histochemistry analysis confirmed that HS-Cf could prevent TNF-α-induced degradation and release of proteoglycan/aggrecan in cartilage explants. Such effects by HS-Cf were likely through suppressing TNF-α-induced interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) but not nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. The significance of IRF-1 was further confirmed by short hairpin knockdown studies. Conclusions In aminilibrary containing 300 small molecules, we identified a benzamide-linked small molecule, HS-Cf, that through down-regulating TNF-α-induced IRF-1 activity suppressed chondrocyte activation and prevented cartilage destruction. HS-Cf might be a potential disease-modifying drug for OA therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1131-1142
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Immunology
Volume31
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
Chondrocytes
Interferon-alpha
Osteoarthritis
Swine
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Cartilage
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Proteoglycans
Therapeutics
Nitric Oxide
Western Blotting
Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
Aggrecans
Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
Therapeutic Uses
benzamide
2-hydroxy-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)benzamide
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

Keywords

  • Chondrocytes
  • Inflammation
  • Interferon regulatory factor-1
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Small molecule
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

A benzamide-linked small molecule HS-Cf inhibits TNF-α-induced interferon regulatory factor-1 in porcine chondrocytes : A potential disease-modifying drug for osteoarthritis therapeutics. / Liu, Feng Cheng; Huang, Hsu Shan; Huang, Chuan Yueh; Yang, Ro; Chang, Deh Ming; Lai, Jenn Haung; Ho, Ling Jun.

In: Journal of Clinical Immunology, Vol. 31, No. 6, 12.2011, p. 1131-1142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background Using tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-activated porcine chondrocytes as a screening tool, we aim to synthesize and identify small-molecule inhibitors preserving immunomodulatory effects as therapeutics for osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Chondrocytes were isolated from pig joints. A minilibrary of 300 benzamide-linked small molecules was established. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by Western blot and Griess reaction, respectively. Proteoglycan degradation in cartilage explants was determined by histochemistry analysis. The activation of transcription factors and protein kinases was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays or Western blots. Zymography and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to determine enzyme activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases, respectively. Results Bioassay screening of benzamide-linked small molecules revealed that 2-hydroxy-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] benzamide (HS-Cf) was a potent inhibitor of NO production and iNOS expression in TNF-α-stimulated porcine chondrocytes. HS-Cf suppressed TNF-α-induced activity of MMP-13 and expressions of several aggrecanases and prevented TNF-α-mediated reduction of collagen II. Histochemistry analysis confirmed that HS-Cf could prevent TNF-α-induced degradation and release of proteoglycan/aggrecan in cartilage explants. Such effects by HS-Cf were likely through suppressing TNF-α-induced interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) but not nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. The significance of IRF-1 was further confirmed by short hairpin knockdown studies. Conclusions In aminilibrary containing 300 small molecules, we identified a benzamide-linked small molecule, HS-Cf, that through down-regulating TNF-α-induced IRF-1 activity suppressed chondrocyte activation and prevented cartilage destruction. HS-Cf might be a potential disease-modifying drug for OA therapeutics.",
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T2 - A potential disease-modifying drug for osteoarthritis therapeutics

AU - Liu, Feng Cheng

AU - Huang, Hsu Shan

AU - Huang, Chuan Yueh

AU - Yang, Ro

AU - Chang, Deh Ming

AU - Lai, Jenn Haung

AU - Ho, Ling Jun

PY - 2011/12

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N2 - Background Using tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-activated porcine chondrocytes as a screening tool, we aim to synthesize and identify small-molecule inhibitors preserving immunomodulatory effects as therapeutics for osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Chondrocytes were isolated from pig joints. A minilibrary of 300 benzamide-linked small molecules was established. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by Western blot and Griess reaction, respectively. Proteoglycan degradation in cartilage explants was determined by histochemistry analysis. The activation of transcription factors and protein kinases was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays or Western blots. Zymography and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to determine enzyme activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases, respectively. Results Bioassay screening of benzamide-linked small molecules revealed that 2-hydroxy-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] benzamide (HS-Cf) was a potent inhibitor of NO production and iNOS expression in TNF-α-stimulated porcine chondrocytes. HS-Cf suppressed TNF-α-induced activity of MMP-13 and expressions of several aggrecanases and prevented TNF-α-mediated reduction of collagen II. Histochemistry analysis confirmed that HS-Cf could prevent TNF-α-induced degradation and release of proteoglycan/aggrecan in cartilage explants. Such effects by HS-Cf were likely through suppressing TNF-α-induced interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) but not nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. The significance of IRF-1 was further confirmed by short hairpin knockdown studies. Conclusions In aminilibrary containing 300 small molecules, we identified a benzamide-linked small molecule, HS-Cf, that through down-regulating TNF-α-induced IRF-1 activity suppressed chondrocyte activation and prevented cartilage destruction. HS-Cf might be a potential disease-modifying drug for OA therapeutics.

AB - Background Using tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-activated porcine chondrocytes as a screening tool, we aim to synthesize and identify small-molecule inhibitors preserving immunomodulatory effects as therapeutics for osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Chondrocytes were isolated from pig joints. A minilibrary of 300 benzamide-linked small molecules was established. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by Western blot and Griess reaction, respectively. Proteoglycan degradation in cartilage explants was determined by histochemistry analysis. The activation of transcription factors and protein kinases was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays or Western blots. Zymography and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to determine enzyme activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases, respectively. Results Bioassay screening of benzamide-linked small molecules revealed that 2-hydroxy-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] benzamide (HS-Cf) was a potent inhibitor of NO production and iNOS expression in TNF-α-stimulated porcine chondrocytes. HS-Cf suppressed TNF-α-induced activity of MMP-13 and expressions of several aggrecanases and prevented TNF-α-mediated reduction of collagen II. Histochemistry analysis confirmed that HS-Cf could prevent TNF-α-induced degradation and release of proteoglycan/aggrecan in cartilage explants. Such effects by HS-Cf were likely through suppressing TNF-α-induced interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) but not nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. The significance of IRF-1 was further confirmed by short hairpin knockdown studies. Conclusions In aminilibrary containing 300 small molecules, we identified a benzamide-linked small molecule, HS-Cf, that through down-regulating TNF-α-induced IRF-1 activity suppressed chondrocyte activation and prevented cartilage destruction. HS-Cf might be a potential disease-modifying drug for OA therapeutics.

KW - Chondrocytes

KW - Inflammation

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KW - Osteoarthritis

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KW - Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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