2,6-Diisopropylphenol is an intravenous anesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Since it is similar to α-tocopherol, 2,6-diisopropylphenol may have antioxidant effects. Osteoblasts play important roles in bone remodeling. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the protective effects of 2,6-diisopropylphenol on oxidative stress-induced osteoblast insults and their possible mechanisms, using neonatal rat calvarial osteoblasts as the experimental model. Clinically relevant concentrations of 2,6-diisopropylphenol (3 and 30 μM) had no effect on osteoblast viability. However, 2,6-diisopropylphenol at 300 μM time-dependently caused osteoblast death. Exposure to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor, increased amounts of nitrite in osteoblasts. 2,6-Diisopropylphenol did not scavenge basal or SNP-releasing nitric oxide. Hydrogen peroxide (HP) enhanced levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in osteoblasts. 2,6-Diisopropylphenol significantly reduced HP-induced oxidative stress. Exposure of osteoblasts to SNP and HP decreased cell viability time-dependently. 2,6-Diisopropylphenol protected osteoblasts from SNP- and HP-induced cell damage. Analysis by a flow cytometric method revealed that SNP and HP induced osteoblast apoptosis. 2,6-Diisopropylphenol significantly blocked SNP- and HP-induced osteoblast apoptosis. Administration of SNP and HP increased caspase-3 activities. However, 2,6-diisopropylphenol significantly decreased SNP- and HP-enhanced caspase-3 activities. This study shows that a therapeutic concentration of 2,6-diisopropylphenol can protect osteoblasts from SNP- and HP-induced cell insults, possibly via suppression of caspase-3 activities.
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Nitric oxide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- History and Philosophy of Science