1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 attenuates endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting MAPK activation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures

Ya Ni Huang, Yi Jung Ho, Chien Cheng Lai, Chien Tsai Chiu, Jia Yi Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Neuroinflammation occurs in insulted regions of the brain and may be due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, and chemokines produced by activated glia. Excessive production of neurotoxic molecules causes further neuronal damage. Low levels of vitamin D3 are a risk factor for various brain diseases. Methods: Using the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to induce neuroinflammation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures, we investigated how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) affected neuroinflammation. Results: LPS (100 ng/ml) induced the accumulation of nitrite and the production of ROS, interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in time-dependent manners. Inhibition of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by 20 μM of SB203580, PD98059, and SP600125, significantly reduced LPS-induced ROS production, NO accumulation, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, respectively. LPS-induced IL-6 and MIP-2 were significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK. Cotreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuated LPS-induced ROS production, NO accumulation, and iNOS expression in concentration-dependent manners. 1,25(OH)2D3 also reduced LPS-induced production of IL-6 and MIP-2. Similarly, iNOS, IL-6, and MIP-2 mRNA expression in cells treated with LPS significantly increased, whereas this effect was attenuated by 1,25(OH)2D3. Moreover, LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK was significantly inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory molecules in neuron-glia cultures by inhibiting MAPK pathways and the production of downstream inflammatory molecules. We suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 can be used to alleviate neuroinflammation in various brain injuries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number147
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 12 2015

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Calcitriol
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Endotoxins
Neuroglia
Lipopolysaccharides
Neurons
Chemokine CXCL2
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Interleukin-6
Reactive Oxygen Species
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Nitric Oxide
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Cholecalciferol
Brain Diseases
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Nitrites
Chemokines
Brain Injuries
Protein Kinase C

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Immunology

Cite this

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 attenuates endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting MAPK activation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures. / Huang, Ya Ni; Ho, Yi Jung; Lai, Chien Cheng; Chiu, Chien Tsai; Wang, Jia Yi.

In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, Vol. 12, No. 1, 147, 12.08.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 attenuates endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting MAPK activation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures

AU - Huang, Ya Ni

AU - Ho, Yi Jung

AU - Lai, Chien Cheng

AU - Chiu, Chien Tsai

AU - Wang, Jia Yi

PY - 2015/8/12

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N2 - Background: Neuroinflammation occurs in insulted regions of the brain and may be due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, and chemokines produced by activated glia. Excessive production of neurotoxic molecules causes further neuronal damage. Low levels of vitamin D3 are a risk factor for various brain diseases. Methods: Using the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to induce neuroinflammation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures, we investigated how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) affected neuroinflammation. Results: LPS (100 ng/ml) induced the accumulation of nitrite and the production of ROS, interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in time-dependent manners. Inhibition of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by 20 μM of SB203580, PD98059, and SP600125, significantly reduced LPS-induced ROS production, NO accumulation, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, respectively. LPS-induced IL-6 and MIP-2 were significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK. Cotreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuated LPS-induced ROS production, NO accumulation, and iNOS expression in concentration-dependent manners. 1,25(OH)2D3 also reduced LPS-induced production of IL-6 and MIP-2. Similarly, iNOS, IL-6, and MIP-2 mRNA expression in cells treated with LPS significantly increased, whereas this effect was attenuated by 1,25(OH)2D3. Moreover, LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK was significantly inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory molecules in neuron-glia cultures by inhibiting MAPK pathways and the production of downstream inflammatory molecules. We suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 can be used to alleviate neuroinflammation in various brain injuries.

AB - Background: Neuroinflammation occurs in insulted regions of the brain and may be due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, and chemokines produced by activated glia. Excessive production of neurotoxic molecules causes further neuronal damage. Low levels of vitamin D3 are a risk factor for various brain diseases. Methods: Using the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to induce neuroinflammation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures, we investigated how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) affected neuroinflammation. Results: LPS (100 ng/ml) induced the accumulation of nitrite and the production of ROS, interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in time-dependent manners. Inhibition of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by 20 μM of SB203580, PD98059, and SP600125, significantly reduced LPS-induced ROS production, NO accumulation, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, respectively. LPS-induced IL-6 and MIP-2 were significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK. Cotreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuated LPS-induced ROS production, NO accumulation, and iNOS expression in concentration-dependent manners. 1,25(OH)2D3 also reduced LPS-induced production of IL-6 and MIP-2. Similarly, iNOS, IL-6, and MIP-2 mRNA expression in cells treated with LPS significantly increased, whereas this effect was attenuated by 1,25(OH)2D3. Moreover, LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK was significantly inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory molecules in neuron-glia cultures by inhibiting MAPK pathways and the production of downstream inflammatory molecules. We suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 can be used to alleviate neuroinflammation in various brain injuries.

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