Patients must change their lifestyle when they get bladder cancer; as a result, their quality of life, is greatly influenced. The purposes of this study were to investigate the quality of life and other impact factors. The research utilized a cross-sectional design. Seventy-seven patients with bladder cancer from a teaching hospital responded to structured questionnaires, which were divided into four parts. The structured questionnaires included questions on the demographic data of the bladder cancer patients, the quality of life index, the social support, and the symptom distress experienced by the patients with bladder cancer. The results of the study show: (1) In terms of the quality of life, patients with bladder cancer score the highest on the intimacy subscale and the lowest on the psychosocial subscale; (2) Educational level, marital status, and level of disease in patients with bladder cancer are significant predictors of differences in quality of life or subscales; (3) Social support is positively correlated with quality of life, and symptom distress is negatively correlated with quality of Life; (4) The analysis of regression indicates that social support, symptom distress, and the stage of the disease can predict 52.8% of the variance in the quality of life. This study indicates that social supports and the symptom distress of patients with bladder cancer exert important influences on their quality of life.