The Pathogenesis of Diabetes is lack of insulin secretion. Meanwhile, those parameters of β-cell function can also be used to diagnose diabetes and assess the progression of diabetes. Therefore, it provides clinicians as the performance indicators for diabetes treatment. Furthermore, it also provides the evidence for the effectiveness of clinic treatment. The measurement of β-cell function is a critical clinical issue. There are many methods to measure β-cell function from simple operation to complicated one which have their own advantages and disadvantages. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) based on the simple quantitative mathematical model can be regarded as an accurate method, and it also contributes to safety and convenience. The purpose of this article will introduce regulatory mechanism of blood glucose and bio-physiologic measurements methods and procedure of pancreatic β-cell function in order to provide the references for researchers and clinicians.