According to the latest statistics, there were approximately 234 million surgeries performed in the world. The annual medical cost due to intensive care unit was estimated to be 3 billion dollars in the United States and there were at least two hundred thousands people admitted to intensive care unit in Taiwan every year. Stroke remains the second leading causes of death in the world and the prevalence of diabetes will reach 4.4% worldwide in 2030. These estimations revealed that surgery, intensive and critical care, stroke, and diabetes were burden of diseases in the world. The gender difference in the complications and mortality of surgery, intensive and critical care, stroke, and diabetes is a crucial medical issue, but it was not valued. Yet, limited international scientific articles reported the gender difference in the clinical medicine issues of Taiwan in detail. Previous investigations indicated that the gender difference existed in the surgical medicine, intensive and critical care, stroke, and diabetes, however, these studies were limited to small sample size, focus on specific population, without matching procedure, and lack of adjusting potential confounding factors in the multiple regression models. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database, we will conducted a nationwide study with large sample included all surgical patients, patients in the intensive care unit, stroke patients and diabetic patients in Taiwan in 2004-2014. The matching procedure with propensity score will be used to select appropriate study subjects. We will use multiple logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of gender differences associated with complications and mortality during the hospitalization of surgery, intensive and critical care, stroke, and diabetes after adjusted for potential confounding factors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the gender difference of complications and mortality during the hospitalization of surgery, intensive and critical care, stroke, and diabetes.
|Effective start/end date||8/1/16 → 10/31/17|