ABSTRACT Objective We denote the four major factors related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as “diabetes factor” (DF); increased insulin resistance (IR); decreased glucose effectiveness (GE); and the first-and-second-phase of insulin secretion (FPIS, SPIS). The level of hemoglobin (Hb) was found to be related to IR and FPIS, but no-known studies focused on its role in relation to SPIS and GE. In this study, we aim to evaluate the relationships between Hb and all four DFs in the same individual. Subjects and methods We randomly enrolled 24,407 men and 24,889 women between 30 and 59 years old. IR, FPIS, SPIS and GE were measured according to equations published in our previous studies. To compare the slopes between Hb and the four DFs with different units, we converted their units to percent of change per unit of increased Hb. Results Age, HDL-cholesterol and GE were higher in women; BMI, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, TG, Hb, FPIS, SPIS and IR were higher in men. After they were converted into percentage, the closeness of their relationships to Hb, from the highest to the lowest, were GE, IR, FPIS and SPIS for women and IR, GE, FPIS and SPIS for men. GE was the only one negatively related to Hb. Conclusions Our data showed that IR, FPIS and SPIS were both positively and, GE negatively, related to the Hb in adult Chinese. For women, GE had the closest association with Hb; for men, it was IR. Both phases of insulin secretion had relatively weaker relationships than IR and GE.