Background/Aims: The study aims to identify children's dietary patterns and explore the relationship between dietary patterns and respiratory diseases. Methods:Subjects were 2,397 fourth graders in 14 Taiwanese communities who participated in the Taiwan Children Health Study. This study is based on an evaluation of dietary patterns, performed from April until June 2011. Information pertaining to respiratory disease was obtained by The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, and dietary intake data obtained by food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis and reduced rank regression (RRR) were both used to analyze dietary patterns. Results: Using factor analysis, it was found that children on a high-protein, high-fat, Western diet had a significantly higher risk of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20). Lower ORs were noted for current wheezing, ever asthma and bronchitis in children eating a healthy diet than those on a high-protein, high-fat, Western diet. Using RRR, it was found that children on a high-protein, high-fat diet had significantly higher risks of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.27), current wheezing (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.45) and bronchitis (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.46).Conclusions: A diet rich in fat and protein may increase the risk of respiratory disease in children.