Abstract Background The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Kingdom of Swaziland is extremely high. How healthcare workers (HCWs) in Swaziland perceive infection control (IC) measures for preventing TB transmission is unclear. This study aimed to determine perceived risk of TB infection in relation to IC measures among HCWs in three institutions of Swaziland. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014. Demographic data and IC measures were collected from main and allied HCWs. Results In total, 186 HCWs (19 doctors, 99 nurses, and 68 allied HCWs) were enrolled. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that nurses (OR = 39.87, 95% CI = 2.721–584.3) and other HCWs (OR =99.34, 95% CI = 7.469–1321) perceived a higher TB infection risk than did doctors. Moreover, HCWs working for <4 years at the TB department perceived a lower TB infection risk (OR = 0.099, 95% CI = 0.022–0.453). Availability of N95 respirator masks (OR = 0.055, 95% CI = 0.005–0.586) and a designated sputum collection area (OR = 0.142, 95% CI = 0.037–0.545) also carried lower TB infection risks. Conclusion This study depicts the current status of IC measures for TB infection in a high prevalence country. The results suggest that HCWs perceived a greater TB infection risk at inadequate environmental IC measures.