Additional file 1: Table S1. Characteristics of gold particles. Table S2. Effects of Au-NPs and Au-MPs on bEnd.3 cell viability. Table S3. Primer sets for qPCR. Figure S1. Changes in mRNA level of AQP1 and Cav1 in Au-NP-treated bEnd.3 cells. Figure S2. Au-NPs did not induce AQP1 expression in cells with hypo-expression level of Cav1. Figure S3. Au-NP treatment rapidly changed the phosphorylating status of FAK, AKT and ERK in concentration-dependent manner. Figure S4. The ERKs functioned as the negative controller on Cav1 and AQP1 expression in bEnd.3 cells. Figure S5. Proposed signaling pathway responsible for Au-NP-mediated AQP1 expression in bEnd.3 endothelial cells.