Abstract Background This study is aimed toward an analysis of the variations in lung cancer incidence and mortality, adjusted by population factors (age, gender, and year), between administrative areas. Methods This is a retrospective study, using 2005–2014 data in each administrative area from the Taiwan Cancer Registry database organized by the Health Promotion Administration. The yearly age-standardized (overall) and crude (stratified by gender and age) incidence/mortality (and their growth rates) for each administrative area were collected and calculated. We used a mixed model to analyze the repeated measurements of yearly incidence and mortality rates and used general linear regression to analyze their growth rates. Results It was found that male and elderly populations had significantly higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in Taiwan. After adjusting for gender, age, and calendar year, there were no significant variations in incidence among the administrative areas, while the mortality in Yilan County was significantly higher than that in Taipei City (the capital city of Taiwan). On the other hand, the incidence in the female and younger population and mortality growth rates were higher. The incidence growth rate in Keelung City was significantly lower than that in Taipei City, while there were no significant variations in mortality growth rate among administrative areas. Conclusions This study found an inequality in the lung cancer burden among cities in Taiwan, which can serve as the basis for future resource allocations for lung cancer prevention and treatment in Taiwan.