Classic Ehlers–Dalnos syndrome presenting as atypical chronic haematoma: a case report with novel frameshift mutation in COL5A1

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Abstract Background Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility and soft tissue vulnerable to blunt injury. Early recognition and diagnosis are crucial to patients to provide appropriate treatment, as well as to screen for life-threatening conditions such as aortic dissection and hollow organ perforation. The diagnosis of EDS is made based on clinical presentations, skin biopsy, and electron microscopy findings. To date, mutations in at least 20 genes have been found to cause the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. However, EDS is still underestimated due to lack of awareness of its variable clinical presentations. Here we reported an EDS case with atypical initial presentation and a novel genetic mutation. Case presentation This 4-year-old Taiwanese male patient presented with easy bruising, multiple ecchymoses, joint hypermobility, hyperextensible skin, and prolonged pretibial haematoma. He was initially suspected of a bleeding tendency due to coagulation disorders. The coagulation test results were normal. DNA sequencing was performed for molecular diagnosis. Subsequently, the diagnosis of classical EDS was made by identifying a novel frameshift mutation in COL5A1 [NM_000093.4:c.4211_4212delAG, p.Gln1404Arg]. This mutation in the type V collagen gene COL5A1 contributes to the phenotype of classical EDS. This novel frameshift mutation may disturb the structural stability of collagen V and interfere with its heparin binding capacity, explaining the chronic haematoma. Conclusion The reported case showed the unusual features of chronic haematoma. This novel frameshift mutation and its phenotype correlation can provide useful information for practitioners about early recognition in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome.
Date made availableJan 1 2020
PublisherUnknown Publisher

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