Additional file 2: Figure S1. TiO2-NPs did not affect the expression of AJ proteins. Figure S2. TiO2-MPs did not affect the expression of TJ/AJ proteins. Figure S3. Changes in mRNA level of claudin-5, ZO-1 and occludin in TiO22-NP-treated bEnd.3 cells. Figure S4. TiO2-NP activated ADAM17 directly, contributing to rapid claudin-5 protein degradation. Figure S5. Scheme of animal treatment. Figure S6. Reduction of choroid blood flow was evidenced in TiO2-NP-treated mice. Figure S7. Intravitreal exposure of TiO2-NPs changed the thickness of retinal sublayers.